Intermediate Welsh: A Grammar and Workbook is designed for learners who have achieved basic proficiency and wish to proceed to more complex language. It presents a broad range of grammatical topics, illustrated by examples, which serve as models for the varied exercises that follow. The emphasis throughout is on colloquial spoken Welsh used by modern-day native speakers. Features include:
This new edition has been redesigned for greater clarity and further examples have been updated.
Introduction 1 Inflected future: regulars 2 Inflected future: irregulars 3 Galla i°/medra i° ‘I can’, etc. 4 Byth and erioed ‘never/ever’ 5 Comparison of adjectives I: comparison 6 Comparison of adjectives II: superlative; equative 7 Comparison of adjectives III: irregulars 8 ‘Time’; ordinal numerals 9 Aspect distinctions with VNs: newydd°, ar° and heb° with VNs 10 Alternative preterite formations 11 Subordinate clauses I 12 Subordinate clauses II 13 Subordinate clauses III 14 Relative clauses I 15 Relative clauses II 16 Conditional of bod; conditional of other verbs 17 Conditional sentences I: open conditions 18 Conditional sentences II: closed conditions 19 Other unreality verbs: gallwn i°/medrwn i°, dylwn i°, leiciwn i°/hoffwn i° 20 Unreality verbs with wedi: ‘should have…’, ‘could have…’, ‘might have…’, etc. 21 Colloquial passive construction with cael 22 Stative passives with wedi and heb° 23 Formal/media (or short) passive in -ir and -wyd 24 More conjugated prepositions 25 Compound prepositions 26 Miscellaneous pronouns I 27 Miscellaneous pronouns II 28 Gwybod ‘know’; sa i, so ti, etc. (neg) 29 Summary of SM 30 Conjunctions I 31 Conjunctions II 32 Focus I: principles 33 Focus II: VNs, bod 34 Focus III: mai and taw 35 Summary of sy 36 Mutation of verb-forms in more formal styles 37 Literary Welsh verbs I: the tense system of Literary Welsh 38 Literary Welsh verbs II: forms of bod 39 Literary Welsh verbs III: irregulars; subjunctive forms 40 Literary Welsh verbs IV: autonomous/impersonal forms Key to exercises Glossary of technical terms Vocabularies: Welsh–English; English–Welsh
These titles combine explanation with exercise work. The Basic Grammar Workbooks are for learners starting at elementary level. Intermediate Grammar Workbooks follow on from these and are for learners who have achieved basic proficiency and wish to progress to more complex language. Each combines clear, concise grammar explanations with communicatively oriented exercises to help build confidence and fluency.
Suitable for independent learners and students on taught courses, the Basic and Intermediate volumes together form a structured course of the essentials of each language's grammar.
All Grammar Workbooks are available as inspection copies.