2678 Pages 6 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    In 1993, the United Nations Security Council set up an ad hoc tribunal to bring to trial those accused of the worst breaches of humanitarian law in the war-torn former Yugoslavia, thus setting in motion a process which has significantly raised the profile and importance of international criminal justice. Whether through a proliferation of international criminal courts and tribunals, or by the many pronouncements in domestic courts on international crimes, the patchwork of disparate rules, principles, conventions, and treaties is now taking discernible shape, and a distinct corpus of law operating across diverse cultures and varied legal traditions is rapidly emerging.

    Responding to these momentous developments, this new title from Routledge’s Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Law, addresses the acute need for an authoritative reference work that traces the evolution of the emerging discipline of international criminal law. The learned editors aver that now is the time to take stock and make some sense of the subject’s dauntingly vast literature, to identify a canon, and to engage with its key concepts. Selected by Antonio Cassese, the first President of the Yugoslavia Tribunal and the author of some of the most influential books on the subject, and a small team of noted scholars, this new four-volume collection assembles the best scholarship from the time of Nuremberg and Tokyo to the present day.

    The volume editors have realized an ambitious aim. Not only does International Criminal Law bring together ground-breaking material sourced from a wide range of academic journals, edited collections, textbooks, and monographs, many of which are now hard to obtain, the editors also illuminate the much broader—and fundamental—issues related to impunity, guilt, restitution, and social reconciliation.

    With a full index and a comprehensive introduction, International Criminal Law is an essential, authoritative, and accessible work of reference for scholar, student, and practitioner alike.


    Part 1: The Notion Of International Criminal Law

    1. G. Schwarzenberger, ‘The Problem of an International Criminal Law’, Current Legal Problems (1950), 265.

    2. I. Tallgren, ‘The Sensibility and Sense of International Criminal Law’, 13 EJIL (2002), 575.

    3. N. Boister, ‘Transnational Criminal Law?’, 14 EJIL (2003), 953.

    Part 2: Purpose and Function of International Criminal Law

    4. M. R. Damaska, ‘What is the Point of International Criminal Justice?’, 83 Chicago-Kent Law Review (2008), 329–65.

    5. A. Cassese, ‘The Rationale of International Criminal Justice’, in Cassese (ed.), Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 123.

    6. M. Osiel, ‘Why Prosecute? Critics of Punishment for Mass Atrocity’, 22 Human Rights Quarterly (2000), 118.

    7. M. Koskenniemi, ‘Between Impunity and Show Trials’, in Frowein and Wolfrum (eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 6 (2002), 1

    8. J. N. Clark, ‘The Limits of Retributive Justice: Findings of an Empirical Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, 7 JICJ (2009), 463–87.

    Part 3: The Historical Evolution of International Criminal Law

    9. T. L. H. McCormack, ‘From Sun Tzu to the Sixth Committee: The Evolution of an International Criminal Law Regime’, The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (Kluwer Law International, 1997), pp. 31–63.

    10. Q. Wright, ‘The Law of the Nuremberg Trial’, 41(1) AJIL (1947), 38–72.

    11. Telford Taylor, ‘The Nuremberg Trials’, 55 Columbia Law Review (1955), 488–525.

    12. C. Tomuschat, ‘The Legacy of Nuremberg’, 4 JICJ (2006), 830–44.

    13. K. J. Heller, ‘Legacy’, The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law (Oxford, 2011), pp. 369–97.

    14. R. Cryer, Introduction, in Boister et al. (eds.), Documents on the Tokyo International Military Tribunal (Oxford, 2008).

    15. B. Röling, ‘The Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials in Retrospect’, in Bassiouni and Nanda (eds.), A Treatise on International Criminal Law (Charles C. Thomas, 1973).

    Part 4: Humanitarian Law, Human Rights Law—And International Criminal Law

    16. J. R. Dugard, ‘Bridging the Gap Between Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: The Punishment of Offenders’, 38 Intl’ Review of the Red Cross (1998), 445–53.

    17. J. Mendez, ‘International Human Rights Law, International Humanitarian Law, and International Criminal Law and Procedure: New Relationships’, in D. Shelton (ed.), International Crimes, Peace, and Human Rights: The Role of the International Criminal Court (Transnational, 2000), p. 65.

    18. K. Anderson, ‘The Rise of International Criminal Law: Intended and Unintended Consequences’, 20 EJIL (2009), 331–58.

    19. W. Schabas, ‘Synergy or Fragmentation? International Criminal Law and the European Convention on Human Rights’, 9 JICJ (2011), 959–72.

    Part 5: Public Opinion, the Media—And International Criminal Justice

    20. M. Simons, ‘International Criminal Tribunals and the Media’, 7 JICJ (2009), 83–8.

    21. M. Klarin, ‘The Impact of the ICTY Trials on Public Opinion in the Former Yugoslavia’, 7 JICJ (2009), 89–96.

    22. K. C. Moghalu, ‘Image and Reality of War Crimes Justice: External Perceptions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’, 26 The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (2002), 21–46.


    Part 6: Fundamental Principles

    23. W. A. Schabas, ‘Perverse Effects of the Nulla Poena Principle: National Practice and the ad hoc Tribunals’, 11 EJIL 2000, 521.

    24. M. Shahabudeen, ‘Does the Principle of Legality Stand in the Way of Progressive Development of Law?’, 2 JICJ (2004), 1007–17.

    25. D. Robinson, ‘The Identity Crisis of International Criminal Law’, 21 LJIL (2008), 925.

    26. G. Werle and F. Jessberger, ‘"Unless Otherwise Provided": Article 30 of the ICC Statute and the Mental Elements of Crimes under International Criminal Law’, 3 JICJ (2005), 35–55.

    Part 7: Crimes

    27. M. Bothe, ‘War Crimes’, in Cassese, Gaeta, and Jones (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary (Oxford, 2002).

    28. C. Kress, ‘The Crime of Genocide under International Criminal Law’, 6 International Criminal Law Review (2006), 461–502.

    29. A. K. Greenawalt, ‘Rethinking Genocidal Intent: The Case for a Knowledge-Based Interpretation’, 99 Columbia Law Review (1999), 2259–94.

    30. Darryl Robinson, ‘Defining "Crimes against Humanity" at the Rome Conference’, 93 AJIL (1999), 43, 47.

    31. D. Scheffer, ‘The Complex Crime of Aggression under the Rome Statute’, 23 Leiden J. Int’l Law (2010), 897–904.

    32. W. A. Schabas, ‘Is Terrorism a Crime Against Humanity?’, 8 International Peacekeeping: The Yearbook of International Peace Operations (2002), 255.

    Part 8: Modes of Responsibility

    33. R. Cryer, ‘General Principles of Liability in International Criminal Law’, in D. McGoldrick, P. Rowe, and E. Donelly (eds.), The Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (Hart Publishing, 2004), pp. 233–62.

    34. M. Osiel, ‘The Banality of Good: Aligning Incentives Against Mass Atrocity’, 105 Columbia Law Review (2005), 1751–862.

    35. G. Werle, ‘Individual Criminal Responsibility in Article 25 ICC Statute’, 5 JICJ (2007), 953–75.

    36. A. Cassese, ‘The Proper Limits of Individual Responsibility under the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise’, 5 JICJ (2007), 109–33.

    37. T. Weigend, ‘Perpetration Through an Organization: The Unexpected Career of a German Legal Concept’, 9 JICJ (2011), 91–111.

    38. M. R. Damaska, ‘The Shadow Side of Command Responsibility’, 49 American Journal of Comparative Law (2001), 455–96.

    Part 9: Defences

    39. P. Gaeta, ‘The Defense of Superior Orders: The Statute of the International Criminal Court Versus Customary International Law’, 10 EJIL (1999), 172–91.

    40. R. Cryer ‘Superior Orders in the International Criminal Court’, in Nigel D. White, Richard Burchill, and Justin Morris (eds.), Essays On Conflict and Security Law in Memory of Hilaire McCoubrey (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 49–67.

    41. T. L. H McCormack, ‘Self-Defense in International Criminal Law’, in H. Abtahi and G. Boas (eds.), The Dynamics of International Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Sir Richard May (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006), pp. 231–56.

    42. J. D. Ohlin, ‘The Bounds of Necessity’, 6 JICJ (2008), 289–308.

    Part 10: Sanctions, Sentencing, and Imprisonment

    43. B. Hola and A. Smeulers, ‘International Sentencing Facts and Figures: Sentencing Practices at the ICTY and the ICTR’, JICJ (2011).

    44. D. Van Zyl Smit, ‘International Imprisonment’, 54 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. (2005), 357–85.


    Part 11: International Courts and Tribunals

    45. J. C. O’Brien, ‘The International Tribunal for Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia’, 87 AJIL (1993), 639.

    46. P. Akhavan, ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The Politics and Pragmatics of Punishment’, 90 AJIL (1996), 501

    47. A. Cassese, ‘The Statute of the International Criminal Court: Some Preliminary Reflections’, 10 EJIL (1999), 144.

    48. G Fletcher and J Ohlin, ‘The ICC: Two Courts in One?’ 4 JICJ (2006), 428.

    49. Z. Pearson, ‘Non-Governmental Organization and the International Criminal Court: Changing Landscapes of International Law’, 39 Cornell Int’l Law Journal (2006), 243–84.

    50. D. Scheffer, ‘The United States and the International Criminal Court’, 93 AJIL (1999), 12.

    51. L. A. Dickinson, ‘The Promise of Hybrid Courts’, 97 AJIL (2003), 295.

    Part 12: General Principles Governing International Criminal Proceedings

    52. K. Ambos, ‘International Criminal Procedure: "Adversarial", "Inquisitorial" or Mixed?’, 3 International Criminal Law Review (2003), 1–37.

    53. A. Cassese, ‘General Principles Governing International Criminal Trials’, International Criminal Law, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 2008), pp. 378–94.

    54. J. Katz Cogan, ‘International Criminal Courts and Fair Trials: Difficulties and Prospects’, 27 Yale LJ Intl. L. (2002), 111.

    55. A. Marston Danner, ‘Enhancing the Legitimacy and Accountability of Prosecutorial Discretion at the International Criminal Court’, 97 AJIL (2003), 510.

    56. M. R. Damaska, ‘Negotiated Justice in International Criminal Courts’, 2 JICJ (2004), 1018–39.

    57. D. Akande, ‘International Law Immunities and the International Criminal Court’, 98 AJIL (2004), 407.

    Part 13: Evidence

    58. D. Scheffer, ‘A Review of the Experiences of the Pre-Trial and Appeals Chambers of the International Criminal Court Regarding the Disclosure of Evidence’, 21 Leiden J. Int’l L. (2008), 151–63.

    59. R. May and M. Wierda, ‘Trends in International Criminal Evidence: Nuremberg, Tokyo, The Hague, and Arusha’, 37 Col. J. Transnatl. Law (1998–9), 725.

    60. S. A. Fernandez de Gurmedi and H. Friman, ‘The Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the ICC’, 3 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2000), 289.

    Part 14: Victims

    61. H. Friman, ‘The International Criminal Court and Participation of Victims: A Third Party to the Proceedings?’, 22 Leiden J. Int’l L. (2009), 485–500.

    62. S. Zappala, ‘The Rights of Victims v. the Rights of the Accused’, JICJ (2010).

    Part 15: State Co-operation

    63. V. Peskin, International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation (Cambridge University Press, 2009), ch. 10.

    64. O. Bekou and R. Cryer, ‘The International Criminal Court and Universal Jurisdiction: A Close Encounter?’, 56 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. (2007), 49–68.

    Part 16: Merits and Limitations of International Criminal Prosecution

    65. A. Cassese, ‘Reflections on International Criminal Justice’, 61 Modern Law Review (1998), 1–10.

    66. J. Alvarez, ‘Crimes of States/Crimes of Hate: Lessons from Rwanda’, 24 Yale J. Int’l L. (1999), 365.


    Part 17: National Prosecutions

    67. R. O’Keefe, ‘Universal Jurisdiction: Clarifying the Basic Concept’, 2 JICJ (2004), 735–60.

    68. A. Cassese, ‘Is the Bell Tolling for Universality? A Plea for a Sensible Notion of Universal Jurisdiction’, 1 JICJ (2003), 589–659.

    69. M. Langer, ‘The Diplomacy of Universal Jurisdiction: The Political Branches and the Transnational Prosecution of International Crimes’, 105 AJIL (2011), 1–49.

    70. C. Stahn, ‘Complementarity: A Tale of Two Notions’, 21 Criminal Law Forum (2008), 87–113.

    71. G. Werle and F. Jessberger, ‘International Criminal Justice is Coming Home’, 13 Criminal Law Forum (2002), 191.

    72. D. Akande and S. Shah, ‘Immunities of State Officials, International Crimes, and Foreign Domestic Courts’, 21 EJIL (2011), 815–52.

    73. N. Boister and R. Burchill, ‘The Pinochet Precedent: Don't Leave Home Without It’, 10 Criminal Law Forum (1999), 405–43.

    Part 18: Amnesties, Traditional Justice Mechanisms, and Non-Criminal Responses

    74. S. Cohen, ‘State Crimes of Previous Regimes: Knowledge, Accountability and the Policing of the Past’, 20 Law and Social Inquiry (1995), 7.

    75. J. Dugard, ‘Dealing With Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option?’, 12 Leiden J. Int’l L. (1999), 1001–15.

    76. R. G. Teitel, ‘Transitional Justice in a New Era’, 26 Fordham Int’l L.J. (2002), 893.

    77. D. Robinson, ‘Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court’, 14 EJIL 2003, 481.

    78. W. A. Schabas, ‘Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts’, 3 JICJ (2005), 879–95.

    79. M. Waldorf, ‘Mass Justice for Mass Atrocity: Rethinking Local Justice as Transitional Justice’, 79 Temple L. Rev. (1996), 1.