1st Edition

International Encyclopedia of Social Policy 3-volume set

    1996 Pages
    by Routledge

    This milestone work is the first to offer in-depth treatment of all aspects of the discipline and practice of social policy globally. Supported by a distinguished international advisory board, the editors have compiled almost 900,000 words across 734 entries written by 284 leading specialists to provide authoritative coverage of concepts, policy actors, welfare institutions and services along a series of national, regional and transnational dimensions. Also included are biographical entries on major policy makers and shapers.

    The editors have particularly striven to provide strong coverage of differing geographical and cultural traditions so that the variety of social policy, as both an academic discipline and a domain of governance, is reflected. Contributors draw in and make the necessary connections with social policy's associated disciplines to provide a rich picture of this vast and highly diverse field.

    Comprehensive and authoritative, the Encyclopedia has sought to open up rather than to foreclose the numerous areas in which there is on-going research, debate and, sometimes, serious disagreement and divergence in theory and practice. To this end, entries attempt to introduce a core or common ground of understanding before moving on to a wider discussion of debates regarding different conceptual and geographical approaches. The whole is integrated by cross-referencing and each entry includes a bibliography for further reading. There is a full index.

    The International Encyclopedia of Social Policy provides the most substantial mapping of the international study and practice of social policy to date and will stand as a vital storehouse of knowledge for many years to come.

    abortion; absolute and relative poverty; accountability and evaluation; acculturation; active welfare; Addams, Jane; adolescent pregnancies; adoption; adverse selection; Advocacy Coalition; affirmative action; affluence test; Africa; ageism; aging; agrarian parties; AIDS; alcohol policy; almhouses; altruism; Amsterdam Treaty; anarchism; anti-poverty policies; anti-racism; Apartheid; APEC; Argentina; ASEAN; Asia; Asian Development Bank; assistance benefits; associations; asylum seekers; Australia; Austria; autonomy; basic income; basic state pension; battered women/wives; begging; Belgium; benefit fraud; Beveridge Report; Beveridge, William; birth control; Bismarck, Otto von; body, the; bottom-up approach; Bourdieu, Pierre; Brazil; Bretton Woods System; Brookings Institution; bubble effect; Buddhism; budgeting; Bulgaria; bureaucracy; caisses; Cambodia; Canada; capability; capitalism; capitation fee; care work; carers; Caribbean; caring; caritas (catholic); casualisation; categorical benefits; Catholic social services; Central and Eastern Europe; centralization and decentralization; charities; child abuse; child benefits; child health services; child labour; child protection; child support services; childcare; children; children's allowances; children's rights; Chile; China; Christian Democracy; Christian Socialism; Christianity; citizenship; civil society; claimants' movement; class; claw-back; clientelism; client-provider interaction; cohabitation; Cohen, Wilbur; collective action; collectivism; commodification and decommodification; communism; communitarianism; community; community and neighborhood centers; community care; community work; community-based development; comparative analysis; competition; complementary social protection; comprehensive education; Comte, Auguste; Confucianism; conservatism; Conservative political parties; consumerism; contracting out; contributory benefits; convergence thesis; coopertive movement; co-payment; coporate welfare; core-periphery labour markets; corporatism; Costa Rica; credit unions; crime; criminal justice system; crisis of the welfare state; Croatia; Cuba; cultural capital; culture; culture of poverty; Czech Republic; data sets; daycare; defined benefit scheme; defined contribution scheme; deflation and reflation; deinstitutionalization; democracy; democratic socialism; demographic trends; demographics; Denmark; dependency; dependency culture; dependency ratio; dependents; deregulation; desert; deserving and undeserving poor; developing countries; development banks; developmental state; deviance; diagnosis-related groups; Diagnostic-Related Groups; diakonie (protestant); diaspora; difference; direct job creation; disability; disability benefits; disablism; discretionary benefits; discrimination; disposable income; disregards; division of labour; divorce; Dix, Dorothea; domestic labour; domestic violence; domiciliary care; downsizing; drug addiction and treatment; dual-earner and no-earner households; Durkheim, Emile; Dutch disease/Dutch miracle; early retirement; earnings; earnings inequality; earnings-related benefits; East Asian Miracle; Eastern Europe; economic liberalism; economics; education; educational inequalities; efficiency; egalitarianism; Egypt; elder abuse; elderly people; elites; elitism; emancipation; embourgeoisement; emotional labour; employability; employers; employers' associations; employment; employment law and rights; employment policies; employment rate; empowerment; enabling state; entitlement; environmentalism; equal opportunities; equal pay legislation; equality; equity; equivalence scales; Esping-Andersen, Gosta; ethnic groups; ethnicity; eugenics; European Community Household Panel; European social fund; European Union; European Union harmonisation; Eurostat; euthanasia; evaluation research; familialization; familism; family allowances; family law; family planning; family policy; family strategies; family wage; family, the; federalism; fee-for-services; feminism; feminization of poverty; fertility rate; financing; Finland; fiscal crisis; fiscal policy; fiscal welfare; flat rate; flat rate benefits; flexibility; food; food stamps; Fordism; Fortress Europe; foster care; fostering; Foucault, Michel; France; free-riders; friendly societies; full employment; functionalism; funded pension; GATS; gays and lesbians; gender; gender pay gap; gender regime; gender relations; gender roles; general practitioners; generational conflict; generational contract; genetics; Germany; Ghandi; Gini Coefficient; global budgeting; global social policy; globalization; governance; government; government statistics; Greece; Gross Domestic Product; gross income; Gross National Product; growth and affluence; Hayek, F.A.; headstart; health; health care inequalities; health care systems; hegemony; hidden unemployment; higher education; Hinduism; home ownership; homelessness; Hong Kong; Hoover Institute; Hopkins, Harry; household, the; housing; housing inequalities; housing policy; human capital; Human Development Index; human nature; Hungary; Iceland; ideology; illiteracy; immigration; incentives; income; income distribution; income inequality; income maintenance, principle of; income policies; independent living; India; indirect wages; individualism; indoor relief; industrial injury; industrialization; infant mortality rate; inflation; informal economy; informal sector/economy; informal work; in-kind provision; insider-outsider theory; institutional approach; insurance benefits; insurance programs; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; International Labour Oragnization; International Monetary Fund; International Non-Governmental Organisations; International Social Security Association; in-work benefits; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Islam; Israel; Italy; Japan; job broking; job centres; Johnson, Lyndon; Judaism; justice; Kakuwei, Tanaka; Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel; Keynes, J. M.; Keynesianism; kindergarten; King, Martin Luther; kinship care; labour costs; labour market participation; labour market training; labour markets; labour movements; laissez-faire; Lathrop, Julia; Latin America; law; learning disabilities; legal aid; Leon XIII; Leon XIII; less ligibility; liberalism; liberty; life expectancy; life-course, the; lifetime employment; literacy rates; living standards; local government; logic of industrialism; lone parents; long-term care; low pay; Luxembourg; Luxembourg Income Study; male breadwinner model; managerialism; Mao; marginal tax rate; marginal utility; market forces; market, the; marketisation; marriage and cohabitation; Marshall, T.H; Marx, Karl; Marxism; maternity policy; means-testing; media, the; medicare and medicaid; mental health services; mental illness; meritocracy; Mexico; Middle East; middle way, the; migrant workers; migrants; Minimum Income Standards; minimum wage legislation; minorities; minseiin; mixed economy; Moller, Gustav; monetarism; moral hazard; moral panic; mortality rates; motherhood; multiculturalism; Multilateral Agreement on Investment; multinational and transnational corporations; mutual aid; mutualism; Myrdal, Gunner & Alva; National Association of Social Workers; nation-state; needs; negative income tax; Netherlands; new institutialism; New Left; new managerialism; New Right; New Zealand; Newburgh experiment; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Nkrumah, Kwame; Non-Governmental Organizations; non-profit sector; normalisation; North American Free Trade Association; North Korea; Norway; nurseries; Nyerere, Julius; obligation, principle of; occupational benefits; occupational segregation; occupational welfare; Offe, Claus; one-person household; opportunity costs; Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; Orientalism and Occidentalism; outdoor relief; Pacific islands; Pakistan; Panel Study of Income Dynamics; panel surveys; panopticon; parental allowance; parental leave; parenting; Pareto, Vilfredo; Park, Chung-hee; part-time employment; paternalism; paternity and parental leave; path dependency; patriarchy; pay-as-you-go pensions; pension funds; pensions; personal accounts; personal social services; philanthropy; Pierson, Paul; Pius XII; pluralism; Poland; Polanyi, Karl; policy network; policy process, the; policy/program evaluation; political spectrum; politics; Poor Law; Portugal; positional goods; positive discrimination; post-colonialism; post-communism; post-Fordism; post-industrialisation; postmodernism; post-structuralism; poverty; poverty dynamics; poverty gap; poverty levels; poverty lines; poverty rate reduction; poverty trap, the; power; power resources model; preferences; pressure groups; private education and schools; private pension funds; privatisation; provident funds; psychology; public attitudes; public choice theory; public debt; public employment services; public goods; public health; public policy; public sector; public work projects; publicly mandated private expenditures; public-private partnerships; purchasing power parity; QUANGOS; quasi-markets; quota system; race; racial division of welfare, the; racism; Rathbone, Eleanor; rational choice theory; real wages; reciprocity; recognition; redistribution; refugees; refuges for women; regime general; regulation theory; rehabilitation; religion; replacement ratio; reproductive health services; reproductive rights; research; residential care; residual welfare states; responsibility; retirement; retrenchment; rights; risk society; risks; Roosevelt, F. D.; Rowntree, Seebohm; Russian Federation; safety net; Saudi Arabia; savings trap, the; Scharpf, Fritz; Schottland, Charles; Schumpeterian Workfare Post-National Regime; security; segregation; selective schools; selectivism; self-employment; self-interest; service delivery; service providers; service users; settlement houses; sex workers; sexism; sexual abuse; sexual division of labour, the; sexual health; sexuality; sheltered housing; Singapore; single parents; Slovenia; Smith, Adam; social and public expenditure; social assistance and social insurance, principles of; social capital; Social Chapter (Maastricht Treaty); social control; Social Darwinism; social democractic political parties; social democracy; social development; social dialogue; social division of welfare; social dumping; social economy; social entrepreunership; social exclusion and inclusion; social housing; social indicators; social justice; social market economy; social movements; social partners; social policy; social problems; social protection; social quality; social rights; social security system; social service; social solidarity; social wage; social welfare; social work; socialism; society; sociology; solidarity; South Africa; South America; South Korea; Soviet Union; Spain; special needs; Speenhamland system; stakeholding; state ownership; state, the; state-centred perspective, the; statistics; status; step families; stigma; stress; structural adjustment; subsidiarity; substance abuse; suffrage; surveillance; survival rate; sustainable development; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan; take-up; Tawney, R.H.; tax credits; tax expenditures; tax relief and allowances; tax system; taxation policies; technology; teenage pregnancy; third sector; third way, the; time; Titmuss, Richard; top down approach; Townsend Movement; trade unions; training; transitional economies; transparency; transport; Treaty of Rome; trilemma; tripartism; Turkey; typological approach; UK; underclass, the; underemployment; unemployment; unemployment benefits; unemployment levels; unemployment trap, the; UNICEF; United Nations; United Nations Development Programme; universal benefits; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; universalism; unpaid work; urban planning; USA; utilitarianism; utility; utopianism; values and attitudes; Veblen, Thorsten; victim compensation; Vietnam; vocational training; voluntarism; voluntary organisations; voluntary welfare; volunteers; vouchers; vulnerable groups; wage earning; wage-earner funds (Sweden); wages; Webb, Sidney and Beatrice; Weber, Max; Weberian sociology; welfare; welfare capitalism; welfare developmentalism; welfare dynamics; welfare mix/pluralism; welfare reform; welfare regimes; welfare rights; welfare society; welfare state, the; welfare theory; welfare tourism; Wells, Ida B.; Western Europe; widows and widowers; women's movement, the; work; work test; workfare; workhouse, the; working hours; work-life balance; workman's compensation; World Bank; World Health Organisation; World Trade Organization; Yat-Sen, Son; young people; Younghusband, Eileen.


    Tony Fitzpatrick, Nick Manning, James Midgely, Huck-ju Kwon, Gillian Pascall