This volume contains the proceedings of the 9th Congress of the International Strabismological Association (ISA). The meeting took place in Sydney, Australia, from 17th to 20th April 2002. The text was written with the intention to provide the reader with information on developments in observations and therapies in strabismus and paediatric ophthalmology. The format of the work follows the meeting programme and is divided into sections of oral presentations, manuscripts of the posters, symposia and workshop. In order to assist the reader a list of keywords and authors have been added to the book.