Although civilian internment has become associated with the Second World War in popular memory, it has a longer history. The turning point in this history occurred during the First World War when, in the interests of ‘security’ in a situation of total war, the internment of ‘enemy aliens’ became part of state policy for the belligerent states, resulting in the incarceration, displacement and, in more extreme cases, the death by neglect or deliberate killing of hundreds of thousands of people throughout the world. This pioneering book on internment during the First World War brings together international experts to investigate the importance of the conflict for the history of civilian incarceration.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Notes on Contributors viii
List of Illustrations xii
1 Internment during the First World War: A Global Mass Phenomenon 1
Stefan Manz, Panikos Panayi and Matthew Stibbe
2 The Internment of Civilian ‘Enemy Aliens’ in the British Empire 24
Stefan Manz and Panikos Panayi
3 Adding Colour to the Silhouettes: The Internment and Treatment 51
of Foreign Civilians in Germany during the First World War
Christoph Jahr and Jens Thiel
4 The Internment of Enemy Aliens in the Habsburg Empire, 1914-1918 77
5 The Internment of Enemy Aliens in France during the First World 108
War: The ‘Depot’ at Corbara in Corsica
6 Colonial Subjects and Enemy Aliens: Confinement and Internment 134
in Italy, 1911-1919
7 Internment and Destruction: Concentration Camps during the Armenian 160
8 The Internment of Enemy Aliens in Canada during the Great War: 184
Rights, Obligations and Diplomacy
Bohdan S. Kordan
9 Control and Internment of Enemy Aliens in the United States 211
during the First World War
10 The New Zealand Occupation of German Samoa during the First 242
World War, 1914-1918: Enemy Aliens and Internment
11 Internment in Neutral and Belligerent Romania (1914-1919) 270
12 The Internment of Prisoners of War and Civilians in Neutral 300
Stefan Manz is Professor of German and Global History at Aston University, Birmingham. His book Constructing a German Diaspora: The ‘Greater German Empire’, 1871–1914 is also published by Routledge.
Panikos Panayi is Professor of European History at De Montfort University, United Kingdom. His publications include The Enemy in Our Midst: Germans in Britain During the First World War and Prisoners of Britain: German Civilian and Combatant Internees during the First World War.
Matthew Stibbe is Professor of Modern European History at Sheffield Hallam University. His edited volume titled Captivity, Forced Labour and Forced Migration in Europe during the First World War and his co-edited volume (with Ingrid Sharp) titled Women’s International Activism during the Inter-War Period, 1919–1939, are both published by Routledge.