In this volume, originally published in 1961, the author presents an exposition of the meanings given to history. Part 1 describes the conceptions of history impied in wide-spread religions and cultures, Confucian and Taoist, Hindu and Buddhist, Zoroastrian and Muslim, Greek and Roman, Jewish and Christian. Part 2 surveys the theories of independent thinkers and schools in the Occident from the Middle Ages to the mid-twentieth century.
Part 1: General Conceptions of History – Oriental and Occidental 1. Quietist and social Attitudes to History in China 2. Metaphysical and Individualist Views of History in India 3. Conceptions of History in Ancient Greece and Rome 4. Theistic Conceptions of History: Zoroastrian, Jewish, Islamic 5. Theistic Conceptions of History: Christian Part 2: Particular Theories of History – Occidental 6. Some Independent Reflections on History from the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century 7. Idealist Treatments of History in the Nineteenth Century and After 8. Naturalist Treatment of History in the Nineteenth Century and After 9. Attitudes of Historians and the Approach to Philosophy of History