Introducing Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) : Fundamentals, Simulations, and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Introducing Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD)
Fundamentals, Simulations, and Applications

ISBN 9789814745512
Published March 27, 2017 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
422 Pages 25 Color & 229 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This might be the first book that deals mostly with the 3D technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations of major state-of-the-art stress- and strain-engineered advanced semiconductor devices: MOSFETs, BJTs, HBTs, nonclassical MOS devices, finFETs, silicon-germanium hetero-FETs, solar cells, power devices, and memory devices. The book focuses on how to set up 3D TCAD simulation tools, from mask layout to process and device simulation, including design for manufacturing (DFM), and from device modeling to SPICE parameter extraction. The book also offers an innovative and new approach to teaching the fundamentals of semiconductor process and device design using advanced TCAD simulations of various semiconductor structures. The simulation examples chosen are from the most popular devices in use today and provide useful technology and device physics insights. To extend the role of TCAD in today’s advanced technology era, process compact modeling and DFM issues have been included for design–technology interface generation.

Unique in approach, this book provides an integrated view of silicon technology and beyond—with emphasis on TCAD simulations. It is the first book to provide a web-based online laboratory for semiconductor device characterization and SPICE parameter extraction. It describes not only the manufacturing practice associated with the technologies used but also the underlying scientific basis for those technologies. Written from an engineering standpoint, this book provides the process design and simulation background needed to understand new and future technology development, process modeling, and design of nanoscale transistors.

The book also advances the understanding and knowledge of modern IC design via TCAD, improves the quality in micro- and nanoelectronics R&D, and supports the training of semiconductor specialists. It is intended as a textbook or reference for graduate students in the field of semiconductor fabrication and as a reference for engineers involved in VLSI technology development who have to solve device and process problems. CAD specialists will also find this book useful since it discusses the organization of the simulation system, in addition to presenting many case studies where the user applies TCAD tools in different situations.

Table of Contents


The Need

Role of TCAD

TCAD: Challenges

TCAD: 2D versus 3D

TCAD: Design Flow

Extending TCAD

Process Compact Model

Process-Aware Design

Design for Manufacturing

TCAD Calibration

TCAD Tools

Technology Boosters

BiCMOS Process Simulation

SiGe and SiGeC HBTs

Silicon Hetero-FETs


Advanced Devices

Memory Devices

Power Devices

Solar Cells

TCAD for SPICE Parameter Extraction


VWF and Online Laboratory


Technology CAD Tools

History of Process and Device Simulation Tools

Commercial TCAD Tools

Silvaco Tool Overview



Stress Modeling

Synopsys TCAD Platforms

Atomistic Simulation


Technology Boosters

Stress Engineering

Intentional Mechanical Stress

Stress-Engineered Transistors

Hybrid Orientation Technology

High-k/Metal Gate

Stress Evolution during Semiconductor Fabrication


BiCMOS Process Simulations

Ion Implantation Simulation

Optical Lithography Simulation

Contact-Printing Simulation

BJT Process Simulation

3D MOS Process Simulation


SiGe and SiGeC HBTs

SiGe HBTs: Process and Device Simulation

High-Speed SiGe HBTs

SiGeC HBTs: Process and Device Simulation

Strain-Engineered SiGe HBTs

n-p-n SiGe HBTs with an Extrinsic Stress Layer

n-p-n SiGe HBT Device Employing a Si3N4 Strain Layer

n-p-n SiGe HBT Employing a SiO2 Strain Layer


Silicon Hetero-FETs

Electronic Properties of Strained Si and SiGe

Strained-Si Channel p-MOSFETs



Basics of FinFETs

Stress-Engineered FinFETs

FinFET Design and Optimization


Advanced Devices

Ultrathin-Body SOI

Gate-First SOI

Gate-Last SOI





3D SiC Process and Device Simulation


Memory Devices

Nanocrystal Floating-Gate Device

Technology Computer-Aided Design of Memory Devices

Process Simulation of Flash Memory Devices

Device Simulation of Flash Memory Devices

State Transition and Single-Event Upset in SRAM

Nanoscale SRAM


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Chinmay K. Maiti received his B.Sc. (Hons.) in physics (1969), B.Tech. in applied physics (1972), and M.Tech. in radio physics and electronics (1974) from the University of Calcutta, India. He then did his M.Sc. (Res.) in microelectronics (1976) from Loughborough University, UK, and PhD (Eng.) in microelectronics (1984) from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, India. He later joined IIT as professor and was head of the department (2009–2012). From 2004 to 2006 he was a visiting professor at Queen’s University, Belfast, UK. Ignoring an extension offer from IIT, he joined the SOA University, Bhubaneswar, India, in 2015. Dr. Maiti won the INSA-Royal Society (UK) Exchange of Scientists Fellowship in 2003, the CDIL Award for Industry of the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers for the best paper in 1997, and the West Bengal Academy of Sciences Fellowship in 2007. He is interested in semiconductor device/process simulation research and microelectronics education. He has published more than 265 technical articles in the silicon-germanium and heterostructure-silicon areas, written 6 monographs and 6 book chapters, and edited Selected Works of Professor Herbert Kroemer (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008).