Introduction to Biofuels  book cover
1st Edition

Introduction to Biofuels

ISBN 9781138116276
Published June 14, 2017 by CRC Press
455 Pages 147 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

What role will biofuels play in the scientific portfolio that might bring energy independence and security, revitalize rural infrastructures, and wean us off of our addiction to oil? The shifting energy landscape of the 21st century, with its increased demand for renewable energy technology, poses a worrying challenge. Discussing the multidisciplinary study of bioenergy and its potential for replacing fossil fuels in the coming decades, Introduction to Biofuels provides a roadmap for understanding the broad sweep of technological, sociological, and energy policy issues that intermingle and intertwine.

Copiously illustrated and with numerous examples, this book explores key technologies, including biotechnology, bioprocessing, and genetic reprogramming of microorganisms. The author examines the future of biofuels from a broader perspective, addressing the economic, social, and environmental issues crucial for studying the sustainable development of bioenergy. Each chapter begins with questions and provides the answers later in the chapter as key informational points. Embedded Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) sections provide detailed derivations and equations for a subset of topics that can be found easily as buzzwords in popular media and on web sites. Together, the STEM topics form a thread of essential technologies and a guide to how researchers have established quantitative parameters that are crucial to the ever-growing biofuels database.

With so much information scattered throughout the literature, it is often difficult to make sense of what is real and what is an optimistic selling of ideas with no scientific credibility. This book does an excellent job of filtering through volumes of data, providing a historical perspective on which to anchor the information, and outlining the strengths and constraints of the different biofuels.

Table of Contents

Ethanol as the Leading “First-Generation” Biofuel
Historical Development of Ethanol as a Fuel from Neolithic Times to the Twentieth Century
Oil Supply and Oil Price in the Twentieth Century: Necessity and Alternative Fuel Programs
Case Study 1: Brazil and Sugarcane Ethanol
Case Study 2: Starch-Based Ethanol in the United States
Thermodynamic and Environmental Aspects of Ethanol as a Biofuel

Cellulosic Ethanol as a “Second-Generation” Biofuel
Bioethanol and Cellulosic Ethanol: The Rise of Biomass-Based Biofuels
Structural and Industrial Chemistry of Cellulosic Biomass
Cellulases: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biotechnology
Hemicellulases: New Horizons in Energy Biotechnology
Lignin-Degrading Enzymes as Aids to Saccharification
Commercial Choices of Cellulosic Feedstocks for Ethanol Production
Biotechnology and Platform Technologies for Cellulosic Ethanol

Microbiology of Cellulosic Ethanol Production I: Yeasts
Traditional Ethanologenic Yeasts
Metabolic Engineering of Yeasts for Cellulosic Ethanol
Toward the Perfect Yeast Ethanologen?

Microbiology of Cellulosic Ethanol Production II: Bacteria
Assembling Gene Arrays in Bacteria for Ethanol Production
Thermophilic Species and Cellulosome Bioproduction Technologies
“Designer” Cells and Synthetic Organisms

Biochemical Engineering of Cellulosic Ethanol
Case Study: The Iogen Corporation Process with Wheat Straw
Biomass Substrate Pretreatment Strategies
Fermentation Media and the Very High Gravity Concept
Fermentor Design and Novel Fermentor Technologies
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Consolidated Bioprocessing
Downstream Processing and By-products

The Economics of Fuel Ethanol
Market Forces and Incentives
Cost Models for Fuel Ethanol Production
Pilot Plant and Industrial Extrapolations for Cellulosic Ethanol
Governmental and Macroeconomic Factors

Advanced Biofuels: The Widening Portfolio of Alternatives to Ethanol
Biobutanol and ABE
Bacterial Production of C3–C7 Alcohols and Related Compounds
The MixAlco Process
Microbial Fuel Cells: Eliminating the Middlemen of Energy Carriers

Chemically Produced Biofuels
Biodiesel: Chemistry and Production Processes
Fischer–ropsch Diesel: Chemical Biomass–iquid Fuel Transformations
Biodiesel from Microalgae and Microbes
Chemical Conversions of Glycerol Produced by Fermentation
Chemical Routes for the Production of Monooxygenated C6 Liquid Fuels from Biomass Carbohydrates
Biomethanol and Biodimethylether
Chemistry and the Emergence of the Hydrogen Economy

Sustainability of Biofuels Production
Delivering Biomass Feedstocks for Cellulosic Ethanol Production: The Logistics of a New Industry
Sustainable Development and Biomass Production
Bioenergy Crops and Genetically Manipulated Plants

Biofuels as Products of Integrated Bioprocesses (Biorefineries)
The Biorefinery Concept
Biorefinery Entry Routes
Biorefinery Pivotal Products
Central Substrates and Biorefinery Flexibility
When Will the Biobased Economy Be Possible and When Will It Be Unavoidable?

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