Includes Case Studies from a Range of Event Sites
Introduction to Crowd Scienceexamines the growing rate of crowd-related accidents and incidents around the world. Using tools, methods, and worked examples gleaned from over 20 years of experience, this text provides an understanding of crowd safety. It establishes how crowd accidents and incidents (specifically mass fatalities in crowded spaces) can occur. The author explores the underlying causes and implements techniques for crowd risk analysis and crowd safety engineering that can help minimize and even eliminate occurrences altogether.
Understand Overall Crowd Dynamics and Levels of Complex Structure
The book outlines a simple modeling approach to crowd risk analysis and crowds safety in places of public assembly. With consideration for major events, and large-scale urban environments, the material focuses on the practical elements of developing the crowd risk analysis and crowd safety aspects of an event plan. It outlines a range of modeling techniques, including line diagrams that represent crowd flow, calculations of the speed at which a space can fill, and the time it takes for that space to reach critical and crush density. It also determines what to consider during the event planning and approval (licensing/permitting) phases of the event process.
Introduction to Crowd Scienceaddresses key questions and presents a systematic approach to managing crowd risks in complex sites. It provides an understanding of the complexity of a site, that helps youplan for crowds in public places.
"Really excellent work. It does a good job of taking a very sophisticated topic and making it accessible for an educated reader."
—Tracy Pearl, Florida International University
Why do we need this?
Understanding the problem
Learning from past experience
The root of the problem
Cost-effective crowd safety modelling
Crowd risk analysis
Basic planning/approval requirement
Understanding the basic skills
The minimum is not enough
Keep the crowd density low
A bigger picture
Graphing the results
Dangerous crowd simulations
Defining ‘risk’ due to density
Site design: theory
Crowd dynamics and crowd science
Are all crowd simulations bad?
Applications of a crowd simulation
Crowd and event modelling
The crowd management plan
Modelling for a major project
What is an event model?
RAMP analysis: Summary
Decision support analysis
Case studies and examples
Assessing the risk assessment
Case study examples
Modelling an event
A picture speaks a thousand words
How to begin
Ingress—capacity—Beijing Olympics Torch Relay
Manchester United Victory Parade
Ingress—circulation—Lincoln Christmas Market
Event—site capacity—Leicester Caribbean Carnival
Circulation—capacity—The Jamarat Bridge
Ingress—egress (shared space)—Love Parade Disaster
Egress—congestion—London New Year Event (Fireworks)
Egress—crowd management—Wembley White
Control room applications
Understanding crowd dynamics
Real-time decision support tool
Mass transit systems
Paradox of choice
Problems with evacuation simulations
The way forward
Why should you listen to us?
Appendix A: Essential crowd safety mathematics