Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements  book cover
3rd Edition

Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements

ISBN 9781138071902
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
952 Pages 561 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors’ 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M).

What’s New in This Edition:

This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems.

Containing 13 chapters, this third edition:

  • Describes sensor dynamics, signal conditioning, and data display and storage
  • Focuses on means of conditioning the analog outputs of various sensors
  • Considers noise and coherent interference in measurements in depth
  • Covers the traditional topics of DC null methods of measurement and AC null measurements
  • Examines Wheatstone and Kelvin bridges and potentiometers
  • Explores the major AC bridges used to measure inductance, Q, capacitance, and D
  • Presents a survey of sensor mechanisms
  • Includes a description and analysis of sensors based on the giant magnetoresistive effect (GMR) and the anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) effect
  • Provides a detailed analysis of mechanical gyroscopes, clinometers, and accelerometers
  • Contains the classic means of measuring electrical quantities
  • Examines digital interfaces in measurement systems
  • Defines digital signal conditioning in instrumentation
  • Addresses solid-state chemical microsensors and wireless instrumentation
  • Introduces mechanical microsensors (MEMS and NEMS)
  • Details examples of the design of measurement systems

Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements is written with practicing engineers and scientists in mind, and is intended to be used in a classroom course or as a reference. It is assumed that the reader has taken core EE curriculum courses or their equivalents.

Table of Contents

Measurement Systems


Measurement System Architecture

Errors in Measurements

Standards Used in Measurements

Chapter Summary


Analog Signal Conditioning in Instrumentation


Differential Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers

Analog Active Filter Applications Using Conventional Op-Amps

Instrumentation Amplifiers

Nonlinear Analog Signal Processing by Op-Amps and by Special

Function Modules

Charge Amplifiers

Phase-Sensitive Rectifiers

Chapter Summary


Noise and Coherent Interference in Measurements


Descriptions of Random Noise in Circuits

Propagation of Gaussian Noise through Linear Filters

Broadband Noise Factor and Noise Figure of Amplifiers

Spot Noise Factor and Figure

Transformer Optimization of Amplifier Fspot and Output SNR

Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers

Examples of Calculations of the Noise-Limited Resolution of Certain

Signal Conditioning Systems

Modern, Low-Noise Amplifiers for Use in Instrumentation

Signal-Conditioning Systems

Coherent Interference and Its Minimization

Chapter Summary


DC Null Methods of Measurement


Wheatstone Bridge Analysis

Kelvin Bridge

Anderson Constant Current Loop


Chapter Summary


AC Null Measurements


Components: Inductor Equivalent Circuits

Components: Capacitor Equivalent Circuits

AC Operation of Wheatstone Bridges

AC Bridges

Chapter Summary


Survey of Sensor Mechanisms


Categories of Sensor Mechanisms

Fiber-Optic Sensors

Photomultiplier Tubes and Related Photoelectron Multiplication Devices

Ionizing Radiation Sensors

Electrochemical Sensors

Mechano-Optical Sensors

Chapter Summary


Applications of Sensors to Physical Measurements


Measurement of Angular Acceleration, Velocity, and Displacement

Measurement of Linear Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement, and Position

Measurement of Force and Torque

Pressure Measurements

Introduction to Substance Detection and Measurement Using Photons

Other Means of Substance Detection

Temperature Measurements

Chapter Summary


Basic Electrical Measurements


DC Voltage Measurements

Measurement of Static Electric Fields and the Potential of Charged Surfaces

DC Measurements

AC Voltage Measurements

AC Measurements

Magnetic Field Measurements

Phase Measurements

Measurements of Frequency and Period (Time)

Measurement of Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

Vector Impedance Meters

Chapter Summary


Digital Interfaces in Measurement Systems


Sampling Theorem

Quantization Noise



Hold Operation


IEEE- Instrumentation Bus (GPIB)

Serial Data Communications Links

CAMAC (IEEE-) Modular Instrumentation Standard and the VXI

Modular Instrumentation Architecture

How Transmission Lines Affect the Transfer of Digital Data

Data Transmission on Fiber-Optic Cables

Virtual Instruments

Chapter Summary


Introduction to Digital Signal Conditioning in Instrumentation


Digital Filters and the z-Transform

Some Simple DSP Algorithms

Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms and Their Applications

Digital Routines for Interpolating Discrete Data

Chapter Summary


Solid-State Chemical Microsensors and Wireless Instrumentation


Chemical Microsensor Designs

Electronic Noses

Radio ICs for Wireless Data Transmission

Wireless Patient Monitoring Systems

Power Sources for Wireless Sensors, Effectors, and WDX

Absorbable Electronic Circuit Implants

Chapter Summary


Introduction to Mechanical Microsensors

Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems

MEM Accelerometer and Pressure Sensor ICs

MEM Rate Gyros

Cantilever-Like MEMS and NEMS and Their Applications

Chapter Summary


Examples of the Design of Measurement Systems


Self-Nulling, Microdegree Resolution Polarimeter to Measure Glucose in Bioreactors

Design of a System to Detect, Measure, and Locate Partial Discharges in High-Voltage Coaxial Power Cables

Design of a Closed-Loop, Constant-Phase, Pulsed Laser Ranging System and Velocimeter

Design of Capacitive Sensors for the Detection of Hidden Objects

Chapter Summary




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Robert B. Northrop, PhD, majored in electrical engineering (EE) at MIT, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in 1956. At the University of Connecticut, he earned his master’s degree in electrical and systems engineering in 1958. As the result of a long-standing interest in physiology, he enrolled in a PhD program at UCONN in physiology, doing research on the neuromuscular physiology of molluscan catch muscles. He received his PhD in 1964. In 1963, he rejoined the UCONN EE Department as a lecturer and was hired as an assistant professor of EE in 1964. He has written numerous papers in peer-reviewed journals, and 12 textbooks including the following books published by CRC Press: Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements (1997), Endogenous and Exogenous Regulation and Control of Physiological Systems (2000), Dynamic Modeling of Neuro-Sensory Systems (2001), Noninvasive Instrumentation and Measurements in Medical Diagnosis (2002), Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits in Biomedical Engineering (2004), Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements—2nd edition (2005), Introduction to Molecular Biology, Genomics & Proteomics for Biomedical Engineers (with Anne N. Connor) (2008), Signals and Systems Analysis in Biomedical Engineering—2nd edition (2010), Introduction to Complexity and Complex Systems (2011), Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits in Biomedical Engineering—2nd edition (2012), and Ecological Sustainability: Understanding Complex Issues (with Anne N. Connor) (2013).