Introduction to Law Enforcement  book cover
1st Edition

Introduction to Law Enforcement

ISBN 9781466556232
Published February 26, 2013 by Routledge
480 Pages 167 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Modern perspectives of law enforcement are both complex and diverse. They integrate management and statistical analysis functions, public and business administration functions, and applications of psychology, natural science, physical fitness, and marksmanship. They also assimilate theories of education, organizational behavior, economics, law and public policy, and many others. Modern law enforcement is a blend of both theoretical knowledge and applied practice that continuously changes through time.

With contributions by nine authors offering a diverse presentation, Introduction to Law Enforcement goes beyond the linear perspective found in most law enforcement texts and offers multiple perspectives and discussions regarding both private and public entities. Through this approach, readers gain an understanding of several dimensions of the subject matter.

Topics discussed include:

  • Contemporary crime trends
  • Policing ethics
  • Law enforcement history
  • The functions of modern law enforcement agencies
  • Homeland security
  • Public service
  • Human resources
  • The path of a case from arrest through incarceration and post-release
  • Local, state, regional, federal, and tribal law enforcement agencies
  • Private enforcement organizations

Adaptable across a wide range of learning environments, the book uses a convenient format organized by agency type. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, case studies, and discussion questions to facilitate reader assimilation of the material. Comprehensive in scope, the text presents a robust consideration of the law enforcement domain.

Table of Contents

Crime in the United States
Criminal Law and Civil Law
Measuring Crime
Crime Trends in the United States
Victim Characteristics
Offender Characteristics
Crimes Encountered
Drugs and Crime
Hate Crimes
Gangs and Crime
Cyber Crime
Investigations and Suspects
Notable Incidents
The History of Law Enforcement in the United States
The British Heritage, Colonial America, and the First Generation of Law Enforcement in the United States
Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and the Birth of Urban Policing
State Level Law Enforcement
Federal Enforcement
Private Security and Enforcement
Breaking Barriers
Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology
Law Enforcement in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
Law Enforcement in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
Law Enforcement and the US Military
Landmark Cases
Post-9/11: The Explosion of Homeland Security
Local and Tribal Enforcement in the United States
Demographics of Local (and State) Law Enforcement
Special Jurisdiction Agencies
Regional Policing and Police Task Forces
Other Agencies
Reserve Police
Perished in the Line of Duty
Case Consideration: August Vollmer
State Law Enforcement in the United States
State Enforcement
Nineteenth Century Experiments
Massachusetts State Police: An Experiment
A New Model for Urban State Policing: Pennsylvania
The Formative Years: 1908–1940
General Butler’s View
Traffic Regulation and Enforcement
Growth and Expansion: 1940–1960
The Modern Era: 1960 to Present
State-Level Resources and their Role with Homeland Security
State Wildlife Enforcement
Specialized State Enforcement and Investigations
Notable Aspects of State Law Enforcement Entities
Federal and International Law Enforcement
US Department of Justice
US Marshals Service
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Drug Enforcement Administration
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
US Department of Homeland Security
US Coast Guard
US Secret Service
Customs and Border Protection
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Transportation Security Administration
Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service
Department of Homeland Security, Homeland Security Investigations
Department of State
Bureau of Diplomatic Security
The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Department of Treasury
Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigations
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
United States Forest Service
United States Forest Service Law Enforcement and Investigations
US Postal Service and Postal Inspection Service
Office of Inspector General
US Department of the Interior
US Department of the Interior, National Park Service—US Park Police
Department of Interior, National Park Service—Park Rangers
International Policing
Financial Action Task Force
International Criminal Police Organization
Private Enforcement
What Is Private Security?
History of Private Enforcement and Security in the
United States
Significance of Private Security and Enforcement
Private Security: The Scope of Work
Private Investigations
Protection of Critical Infrastructure
Security Consulting
Relationships Between Organizations and Private Security
Counterfeit Products and Enforcement
NASA Security Example
Corporate and Industrial Espionage Examples
Considerations of the Relationship
Modern Times: The FedEx Private Police
The Business of Private Security
Global Contexts and Markets
Organizational Contexts
Training, Licensure, and Certification
Privately Operated Correctional Facilities
National Insurance Crime Bureau
International Contractors
Relationship between Private and Public Entities
Accomplishments of Private Security and Enforcement
Living Ethically
Code of Ethics
IACP Oath of Honor
Policing with Character
Public Statements, Appearances, and Endorsements
What Causes Corruption in Policing?
Changing Moral Standards of a Contemporary Society
The Officer’s Working Environment
Organizational Expectations of the Police
The Role of the Police in a Democratic Society
Public Perceptions
Police Self-Perceptions
Corruption and Ethical Challenges
The Ideal of Noble Cause Corruption
Discretion in Policing
Dilemmas in Policing
Deterring Corruption
Types of Policing
Community Defined
Traditional Policing
Community Policing
Transforming the Police Agency
Broken Windows Theory
Problem-Oriented Policing
Zero-Tolerance Policing
Homeland Security Policing
Intelligence-Led Policing
Patrol Types and Specialized Assignments
Types of Patrol
Foot Patrol
Automobile Patrol
Bicycle Patrol
Marine Patrol
Mounted and Equine Patrols
Specialized Assignments
Crime Scene Investigation
Criminal Investigations
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (Bomb Squad)
Gang Investigations
Intelligence Functions
Organized Crime and Narcotics Investigations
Special Weapons and Tactics
Internal Affairs
Police Bands
Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology
Goal of an Investigation
Types of Evidence
The Investigative Team
The Investigative Process
The Preliminary Investigation
Approaching the Crime Scene
First Officers on the Scene
Initial Steps
Crime Scene Search
Follow-up Investigation
Prosecutorial Phase
Unsolved Investigations and Cold Cases
Forensic Science
Foundations of Forensic Science
Why Science?
Forensic Science Defined
Evidence Collection
At the Crime Scene
The Forensic Laboratory
Forensic Pathologist
Forensic Toxicologists
Forensic Anthropologist
Forensic Odontologist
Forensic Laboratory Functional Areas
Criminalistics Division
Analytical Division
Bioscience Division
Behavioral Sciences and Forensic Analysis
After Arrest: Taking the Case to Court
Basic Concepts
Elements of Crime
Facts, Evidence, and Proof
Personnel in the Court Process
The Role of Attorneys
The Trial Jury
The Court Process
Initial Appearances and Bail
Grand Jury Indictments and Preliminary Hearings
Plea Agreements
Discovery and Motions
Law Enforcement under the United States Constitution
The Constitution as the Supreme Law of the United States
Separation of Powers
The Bill of Rights
Enumerated Powers
The Role of Courts
How Courts Reason
How the Constitution Applies to Law Enforcement
Amendments Most Applicable to Law Enforcement
The First Amendment
The Fourth Amendment
The Fifth Amendment
The Sixth Amendment
The Eighth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment
The Remaining Amendments
Considerations of Evidence
Issues of Privacy, Security, and Liberty
Administration and Leadership: Community Support, Recruitment, Selection, Training, and Retention
The Role of the Law Enforcement Administrator
Gaining and Maintaining Public Support
Personnel Considerations
Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment Challenges
Recruitment of Minority Groups and Women
Police Training
Performance Reviews
Retention of Police Officers
Human Resources Contexts
Other Administrative and Command Responsibilities
The Future of Law Enforcement and Its Changing Role
Technological Trends
Demographic Trends
Economic and Social Trends
Crime Trends
Emerging Technologies
Simulation Technologies
Artificial Intelligence
Data Mining

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David H. McElreath, Ph.D., is a professor and former chair of the Department of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi. He is a former police officer and retired United States Marine Corps Colonel. He has served as a consultant, including working on projects for the United States Department of State. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice and homeland security systems. He and his wife Leisa live in Mississippi

Daniel Adrian Doss, Ph.D., has served as assistant professor, College of Business Administration, University of West Alabama; assistant professor, Belhaven College; adjunct assistant professor, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; and chair of graduate business and management, University of Phoenix (Memphis). His professional career has consisted of software engineering and analytical positions in both the defense and commercial industries.

Carl J. Jensen III, Ph.D., is the director of The University of Mississippi’s (UM) Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. He also is a member of UM’s Department of Legal Studies and works in an adjunct capacity as a senior behavioral scientist with the RAND Corporation. Dr. Jensen was a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 22 years. His FBI career included service as a field agent, a forensic examiner in the FBI Laboratory, and an instructor and assistant chief of the Behavioral Science Unit.

Michael Wigginton, Ph.D., has worked as assistant professor of Criminal Justice and director of The University of Mississippi Master of Criminal Justice Executive Cohort Program, Department of Legal Studies, at The University of Mississippi. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice system.

Ralph Kennedy, M.Ed., has served as an instructor of criminal justice at The University of Mississippi; former adjunct instructor, National Center for Biomedical Research and Training, Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education, Louisiana State University; and retired special agent, U.S. Secret Service. He has also authored several articles for educational and law enforcement professional publications.

Kenneth R. Winter, M.S.C.J., has worked as instructor of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi; instructor of criminal justice, Delta State University; and executive director, Mississippi Association of Chiefs of Police. He is a Certified Latent Fingerprint Examiner and Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst by the International Association for Identification.

Robert Mongue, J.D., is an assistant professor of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi and was an adjunct instructor of criminal law and paralegal studies at Andover College in Maine. He has over 30 years of experience as a trial and appellate attorney in both state and federal courts, including work as both a prosecutor and a defense attorney.

Jan Bounds, M.B.A., associate professor of Legal Studies, has been involved in legal studies and has taught at The University of Mississippi for 36 years. Ms. Bounds has extensive experience with the court system at both the state and federal levels—teaching court reporting and working with the court systems. She has also worked in the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Mississippi.

J. Michelle Estis-Sumerel, M.S., has served as coordinator of eLearning Instruction, Itawamba Community College; and adjunct instructor, Department of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi. She is also the creator of several courses in law enforcement, corrections, and homeland security.