Introduction to Law Enforcement: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Law Enforcement

1st Edition

By David H. McElreath, Daniel Adrian Doss, Carl J. Jensen III, Michael Wigginton Jr., Ralph Kennedy, Kenneth R. Winter, Robert E. Mongue, Janice Bounds, J. Michelle Estis-Sumerel


479 pages | 167 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466556232
pub: 2013-02-26
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429253898
pub: 2013-02-26
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Modern perspectives of law enforcement are both complex and diverse. They integrate management and statistical analysis functions, public and business administration functions, and applications of psychology, natural science, physical fitness, and marksmanship. They also assimilate theories of education, organizational behavior, economics, law and public policy, and many others. Modern law enforcement is a blend of both theoretical knowledge and applied practice that continuously changes through time.

With contributions by nine authors offering a diverse presentation, Introduction to Law Enforcement goes beyond the linear perspective found in most law enforcement texts and offers multiple perspectives and discussions regarding both private and public entities. Through this approach, readers gain an understanding of several dimensions of the subject matter.

Topics discussed include:

  • Contemporary crime trends
  • Policing ethics
  • Law enforcement history
  • The functions of modern law enforcement agencies
  • Homeland security
  • Public service
  • Human resources
  • The path of a case from arrest through incarceration and post-release
  • Local, state, regional, federal, and tribal law enforcement agencies
  • Private enforcement organizations

Adaptable across a wide range of learning environments, the book uses a convenient format organized by agency type. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, case studies, and discussion questions to facilitate reader assimilation of the material. Comprehensive in scope, the text presents a robust consideration of the law enforcement domain.

Table of Contents

Crime in the United States

Criminal Law and Civil Law

Measuring Crime

Crime Trends in the United States

Victim Characteristics

Offender Characteristics

Crimes Encountered

Drugs and Crime

Hate Crimes

Gangs and Crime

Cyber Crime

Investigations and Suspects

Notable Incidents



The History of Law Enforcement in the United States

The British Heritage, Colonial America, and the First Generation of Law Enforcement in the United States

Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and the Birth of Urban Policing

State Level Law Enforcement

Federal Enforcement

Private Security and Enforcement

Breaking Barriers

Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology

Law Enforcement in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

Law Enforcement in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

Law Enforcement and the US Military

Landmark Cases

Post-9/11: The Explosion of Homeland Security

Local and Tribal Enforcement in the United States

Demographics of Local (and State) Law Enforcement




Special Jurisdiction Agencies

Regional Policing and Police Task Forces

Other Agencies

Reserve Police

Perished in the Line of Duty

Case Consideration: August Vollmer

State Law Enforcement in the United States

State Enforcement

Nineteenth Century Experiments

Massachusetts State Police: An Experiment

A New Model for Urban State Policing: Pennsylvania

The Formative Years: 1908–1940

General Butler’s View

Traffic Regulation and Enforcement

Growth and Expansion: 1940–1960

The Modern Era: 1960 to Present

State-Level Resources and their Role with Homeland Security

State Wildlife Enforcement

Specialized State Enforcement and Investigations

Notable Aspects of State Law Enforcement Entities




Federal and International Law Enforcement

US Department of Justice

US Marshals Service

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Drug Enforcement Administration

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

US Department of Homeland Security

US Coast Guard

US Secret Service

Customs and Border Protection

Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Transportation Security Administration

Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service

Department of Homeland Security, Homeland Security Investigations

Department of State

Bureau of Diplomatic Security

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs

Department of Treasury

Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigations

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

United States Forest Service

United States Forest Service Law Enforcement and Investigations

US Postal Service and Postal Inspection Service

Office of Inspector General

US Department of the Interior

US Department of the Interior, National Park Service—US Park Police

Department of Interior, National Park Service—Park Rangers


International Policing


Financial Action Task Force

International Criminal Police Organization

Private Enforcement

What Is Private Security?

History of Private Enforcement and Security in the

United States

Significance of Private Security and Enforcement

Private Security: The Scope of Work

Private Investigations

Protection of Critical Infrastructure

Security Consulting

Relationships Between Organizations and Private Security

Counterfeit Products and Enforcement

NASA Security Example

Corporate and Industrial Espionage Examples

Considerations of the Relationship

Modern Times: The FedEx Private Police

The Business of Private Security

Global Contexts and Markets

Organizational Contexts

Training, Licensure, and Certification

Privately Operated Correctional Facilities

National Insurance Crime Bureau

International Contractors

Relationship between Private and Public Entities

Accomplishments of Private Security and Enforcement



Living Ethically

Code of Ethics

IACP Oath of Honor

Policing with Character

Public Statements, Appearances, and Endorsements

What Causes Corruption in Policing?

Changing Moral Standards of a Contemporary Society

The Officer’s Working Environment

Organizational Expectations of the Police

The Role of the Police in a Democratic Society

Public Perceptions

Police Self-Perceptions

Corruption and Ethical Challenges

The Ideal of Noble Cause Corruption

Discretion in Policing

Dilemmas in Policing

Deterring Corruption

Types of Policing

Community Defined

Traditional Policing

Community Policing

Transforming the Police Agency

Broken Windows Theory

Problem-Oriented Policing

Zero-Tolerance Policing

Homeland Security Policing

Intelligence-Led Policing

Patrol Types and Specialized Assignments

Types of Patrol

Foot Patrol

Automobile Patrol


Bicycle Patrol


Marine Patrol

Mounted and Equine Patrols

Specialized Assignments


Crime Scene Investigation

Criminal Investigations

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (Bomb Squad)

Gang Investigations

Intelligence Functions

Organized Crime and Narcotics Investigations

Special Weapons and Tactics

Internal Affairs

Police Bands


Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology

Goal of an Investigation

Types of Evidence

The Investigative Team

The Investigative Process

The Preliminary Investigation

Approaching the Crime Scene

First Officers on the Scene

Initial Steps

Crime Scene Search

Follow-up Investigation

Prosecutorial Phase

Unsolved Investigations and Cold Cases

Forensic Science

Foundations of Forensic Science

Why Science?

Forensic Science Defined

Evidence Collection

At the Crime Scene

The Forensic Laboratory


Forensic Pathologist

Forensic Toxicologists

Forensic Anthropologist

Forensic Odontologist

Forensic Laboratory Functional Areas

Criminalistics Division

Analytical Division

Bioscience Division

Behavioral Sciences and Forensic Analysis

After Arrest: Taking the Case to Court

Basic Concepts


Elements of Crime

Facts, Evidence, and Proof

Personnel in the Court Process


The Role of Attorneys


The Trial Jury

The Court Process

Initial Appearances and Bail

Grand Jury Indictments and Preliminary Hearings


Plea Agreements

Discovery and Motions


Law Enforcement under the United States Constitution

The Constitution as the Supreme Law of the United States

Separation of Powers

The Bill of Rights

Enumerated Powers

The Role of Courts

How Courts Reason

How the Constitution Applies to Law Enforcement

Amendments Most Applicable to Law Enforcement

The First Amendment

The Fourth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment

The Sixth Amendment

The Eighth Amendment

The Fourteenth Amendment

The Remaining Amendments

Considerations of Evidence

Issues of Privacy, Security, and Liberty

Administration and Leadership: Community Support, Recruitment, Selection, Training, and Retention

The Role of the Law Enforcement Administrator

Gaining and Maintaining Public Support

Personnel Considerations

Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment Challenges

Recruitment of Minority Groups and Women

Police Training

Performance Reviews

Retention of Police Officers

Human Resources Contexts

Other Administrative and Command Responsibilities

The Future of Law Enforcement and Its Changing Role

Technological Trends

Demographic Trends

Economic and Social Trends

Crime Trends

Emerging Technologies


Simulation Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Data Mining


About the Authors


Daniel Adrian Doss

Livingston, AL, United States of America

Learn more about Daniel Adrian Doss >>

David H. McElreath, Ph.D., is a professor and former chair of the Department of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi. He is a former police officer and retired United States Marine Corps Colonel. He has served as a consultant, including working on projects for the United States Department of State. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice and homeland security systems. He and his wife Leisa live in Mississippi

Daniel Adrian Doss, Ph.D., has served as assistant professor, College of Business Administration, University of West Alabama; assistant professor, Belhaven College; adjunct assistant professor, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; and chair of graduate business and management, University of Phoenix (Memphis). His professional career has consisted of software engineering and analytical positions in both the defense and commercial industries.

Carl J. Jensen III, Ph.D., is the director of The University of Mississippi’s (UM) Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. He also is a member of UM’s Department of Legal Studies and works in an adjunct capacity as a senior behavioral scientist with the RAND Corporation. Dr. Jensen was a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 22 years. His FBI career included service as a field agent, a forensic examiner in the FBI Laboratory, and an instructor and assistant chief of the Behavioral Science Unit.

Michael Wigginton, Ph.D., has worked as assistant professor of Criminal Justice and director of The University of Mississippi Master of Criminal Justice Executive Cohort Program, Department of Legal Studies, at The University of Mississippi. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice system.

Ralph Kennedy, M.Ed., has served as an instructor of criminal justice at The University of Mississippi; former adjunct instructor, National Center for Biomedical Research and Training, Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education, Louisiana State University; and retired special agent, U.S. Secret Service. He has also authored several articles for educational and law enforcement professional publications.

Kenneth R. Winter, M.S.C.J., has worked as instructor of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi; instructor of criminal justice, Delta State University; and executive director, Mississippi Association of Chiefs of Police. He is a Certified Latent Fingerprint Examiner and Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst by the International Association for Identification.

Robert Mongue, J.D., is an assistant professor of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi and was an adjunct instructor of criminal law and paralegal studies at Andover College in Maine. He has over 30 years of experience as a trial and appellate attorney in both state and federal courts, including work as both a prosecutor and a defense attorney.

Jan Bounds, M.B.A., associate professor of Legal Studies, has been involved in legal studies and has taught at The University of Mississippi for 36 years. Ms. Bounds has extensive experience with the court system at both the state and federal levels—teaching court reporting and working with the court systems. She has also worked in the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Mississippi.

J. Michelle Estis-Sumerel, M.S., has served as coordinator of eLearning Instruction, Itawamba Community College; and adjunct instructor, Department of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi. She is also the creator of several courses in law enforcement, corrections, and homeland security.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Criminal Law / General
LAW / Forensic Science
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Criminology