480 Pages 167 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Modern perspectives of law enforcement are both complex and diverse. They integrate management and statistical analysis functions, public and business administration functions, and applications of psychology, natural science, physical fitness, and marksmanship. They also assimilate theories of education, organizational behavior, economics, law and public policy, and many others. Modern law enforcement is a blend of both theoretical knowledge and applied practice that continuously changes through time.

    With contributions by nine authors offering a diverse presentation, Introduction to Law Enforcement goes beyond the linear perspective found in most law enforcement texts and offers multiple perspectives and discussions regarding both private and public entities. Through this approach, readers gain an understanding of several dimensions of the subject matter.

    Topics discussed include:

    • Contemporary crime trends
    • Policing ethics
    • Law enforcement history
    • The functions of modern law enforcement agencies
    • Homeland security
    • Public service
    • Human resources
    • The path of a case from arrest through incarceration and post-release
    • Local, state, regional, federal, and tribal law enforcement agencies
    • Private enforcement organizations

    Adaptable across a wide range of learning environments, the book uses a convenient format organized by agency type. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, case studies, and discussion questions to facilitate reader assimilation of the material. Comprehensive in scope, the text presents a robust consideration of the law enforcement domain.

    Crime in the United States
    Criminal Law and Civil Law
    Measuring Crime
    Crime Trends in the United States
    Victim Characteristics
    Offender Characteristics
    Crimes Encountered
    Drugs and Crime
    Hate Crimes
    Gangs and Crime
    Cyber Crime
    Investigations and Suspects
    Notable Incidents
    The History of Law Enforcement in the United States
    The British Heritage, Colonial America, and the First Generation of Law Enforcement in the United States
    Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and the Birth of Urban Policing
    State Level Law Enforcement
    Federal Enforcement
    Private Security and Enforcement
    Breaking Barriers
    Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology
    Law Enforcement in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
    Law Enforcement in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
    Law Enforcement and the US Military
    Landmark Cases
    Post-9/11: The Explosion of Homeland Security
    Local and Tribal Enforcement in the United States
    Demographics of Local (and State) Law Enforcement
    Special Jurisdiction Agencies
    Regional Policing and Police Task Forces
    Other Agencies
    Reserve Police
    Perished in the Line of Duty
    Case Consideration: August Vollmer
    State Law Enforcement in the United States
    State Enforcement
    Nineteenth Century Experiments
    Massachusetts State Police: An Experiment
    A New Model for Urban State Policing: Pennsylvania
    The Formative Years: 1908–1940
    General Butler’s View
    Traffic Regulation and Enforcement
    Growth and Expansion: 1940–1960
    The Modern Era: 1960 to Present
    State-Level Resources and their Role with Homeland Security
    State Wildlife Enforcement
    Specialized State Enforcement and Investigations
    Notable Aspects of State Law Enforcement Entities
    Federal and International Law Enforcement
    US Department of Justice
    US Marshals Service
    Federal Bureau of Investigation
    Drug Enforcement Administration
    Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
    US Department of Homeland Security
    US Coast Guard
    US Secret Service
    Customs and Border Protection
    Immigration and Customs Enforcement
    Transportation Security Administration
    Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service
    Department of Homeland Security, Homeland Security Investigations
    Department of State
    Bureau of Diplomatic Security
    The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
    Department of Treasury
    Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigations
    Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
    United States Forest Service
    United States Forest Service Law Enforcement and Investigations
    US Postal Service and Postal Inspection Service
    Office of Inspector General
    US Department of the Interior
    US Department of the Interior, National Park Service—US Park Police
    Department of Interior, National Park Service—Park Rangers
    International Policing
    Financial Action Task Force
    International Criminal Police Organization
    Private Enforcement
    What Is Private Security?
    History of Private Enforcement and Security in the
    United States
    Significance of Private Security and Enforcement
    Private Security: The Scope of Work
    Private Investigations
    Protection of Critical Infrastructure
    Security Consulting
    Relationships Between Organizations and Private Security
    Counterfeit Products and Enforcement
    NASA Security Example
    Corporate and Industrial Espionage Examples
    Considerations of the Relationship
    Modern Times: The FedEx Private Police
    The Business of Private Security
    Global Contexts and Markets
    Organizational Contexts
    Training, Licensure, and Certification
    Privately Operated Correctional Facilities
    National Insurance Crime Bureau
    International Contractors
    Relationship between Private and Public Entities
    Accomplishments of Private Security and Enforcement
    Living Ethically
    Code of Ethics
    IACP Oath of Honor
    Policing with Character
    Public Statements, Appearances, and Endorsements
    What Causes Corruption in Policing?
    Changing Moral Standards of a Contemporary Society
    The Officer’s Working Environment
    Organizational Expectations of the Police
    The Role of the Police in a Democratic Society
    Public Perceptions
    Police Self-Perceptions
    Corruption and Ethical Challenges
    The Ideal of Noble Cause Corruption
    Discretion in Policing
    Dilemmas in Policing
    Deterring Corruption
    Types of Policing
    Community Defined
    Traditional Policing
    Community Policing
    Transforming the Police Agency
    Broken Windows Theory
    Problem-Oriented Policing
    Zero-Tolerance Policing
    Homeland Security Policing
    Intelligence-Led Policing
    Patrol Types and Specialized Assignments
    Types of Patrol
    Foot Patrol
    Automobile Patrol
    Bicycle Patrol
    Marine Patrol
    Mounted and Equine Patrols
    Specialized Assignments
    Crime Scene Investigation
    Criminal Investigations
    Explosive Ordnance Disposal (Bomb Squad)
    Gang Investigations
    Intelligence Functions
    Organized Crime and Narcotics Investigations
    Special Weapons and Tactics
    Internal Affairs
    Police Bands
    Early Advancements in Science, Investigations, and Technology
    Goal of an Investigation
    Types of Evidence
    The Investigative Team
    The Investigative Process
    The Preliminary Investigation
    Approaching the Crime Scene
    First Officers on the Scene
    Initial Steps
    Crime Scene Search
    Follow-up Investigation
    Prosecutorial Phase
    Unsolved Investigations and Cold Cases
    Forensic Science
    Foundations of Forensic Science
    Why Science?
    Forensic Science Defined
    Evidence Collection
    At the Crime Scene
    The Forensic Laboratory
    Forensic Pathologist
    Forensic Toxicologists
    Forensic Anthropologist
    Forensic Odontologist
    Forensic Laboratory Functional Areas
    Criminalistics Division
    Analytical Division
    Bioscience Division
    Behavioral Sciences and Forensic Analysis
    After Arrest: Taking the Case to Court
    Basic Concepts
    Elements of Crime
    Facts, Evidence, and Proof
    Personnel in the Court Process
    The Role of Attorneys
    The Trial Jury
    The Court Process
    Initial Appearances and Bail
    Grand Jury Indictments and Preliminary Hearings
    Plea Agreements
    Discovery and Motions
    Law Enforcement under the United States Constitution
    The Constitution as the Supreme Law of the United States
    Separation of Powers
    The Bill of Rights
    Enumerated Powers
    The Role of Courts
    How Courts Reason
    How the Constitution Applies to Law Enforcement
    Amendments Most Applicable to Law Enforcement
    The First Amendment
    The Fourth Amendment
    The Fifth Amendment
    The Sixth Amendment
    The Eighth Amendment
    The Fourteenth Amendment
    The Remaining Amendments
    Considerations of Evidence
    Issues of Privacy, Security, and Liberty
    Administration and Leadership: Community Support, Recruitment, Selection, Training, and Retention
    The Role of the Law Enforcement Administrator
    Gaining and Maintaining Public Support
    Personnel Considerations
    Recruitment and Selection
    Recruitment Challenges
    Recruitment of Minority Groups and Women
    Police Training
    Performance Reviews
    Retention of Police Officers
    Human Resources Contexts
    Other Administrative and Command Responsibilities
    The Future of Law Enforcement and Its Changing Role
    Technological Trends
    Demographic Trends
    Economic and Social Trends
    Crime Trends
    Emerging Technologies
    Simulation Technologies
    Artificial Intelligence
    Data Mining


    David H. McElreath, Ph.D., is a professor and former chair of the Department of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi. He is a former police officer and retired United States Marine Corps Colonel. He has served as a consultant, including working on projects for the United States Department of State. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice and homeland security systems. He and his wife Leisa live in Mississippi

    Daniel Adrian Doss, Ph.D., has served as assistant professor, College of Business Administration, University of West Alabama; assistant professor, Belhaven College; adjunct assistant professor, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; and chair of graduate business and management, University of Phoenix (Memphis). His professional career has consisted of software engineering and analytical positions in both the defense and commercial industries.

    Carl J. Jensen III, Ph.D., is the director of The University of Mississippi’s (UM) Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. He also is a member of UM’s Department of Legal Studies and works in an adjunct capacity as a senior behavioral scientist with the RAND Corporation. Dr. Jensen was a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 22 years. His FBI career included service as a field agent, a forensic examiner in the FBI Laboratory, and an instructor and assistant chief of the Behavioral Science Unit.

    Michael Wigginton, Ph.D., has worked as assistant professor of Criminal Justice and director of The University of Mississippi Master of Criminal Justice Executive Cohort Program, Department of Legal Studies, at The University of Mississippi. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice system.

    Ralph Kennedy, M.Ed., has served as an instructor of criminal justice at The University of Mississippi; former adjunct instructor, National Center for Biomedical Research and Training, Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education, Louisiana State University; and retired special agent, U.S. Secret Service. He has also authored several articles for educational and law enforcement professional publications.

    Kenneth R. Winter, M.S.C.J., has worked as instructor of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi; instructor of criminal justice, Delta State University; and executive director, Mississippi Association of Chiefs of Police. He is a Certified Latent Fingerprint Examiner and Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst by the International Association for Identification.

    Robert Mongue, J.D., is an assistant professor of Legal Studies at The University of Mississippi and was an adjunct instructor of criminal law and paralegal studies at Andover College in Maine. He has over 30 years of experience as a trial and appellate attorney in both state and federal courts, including work as both a prosecutor and a defense attorney.

    Jan Bounds, M.B.A., associate professor of Legal Studies, has been involved in legal studies and has taught at The University of Mississippi for 36 years. Ms. Bounds has extensive experience with the court system at both the state and federal levels—teaching court reporting and working with the court systems. She has also worked in the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Mississippi.

    J. Michelle Estis-Sumerel, M.S., has served as coordinator of eLearning Instruction, Itawamba Community College; and adjunct instructor, Department of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi. She is also the creator of several courses in law enforcement, corrections, and homeland security.