Introduction to Liquid Crystals: Chemistry and Physics, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introduction to Liquid Crystals

Chemistry and Physics, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Peter J. Collings, John W. Goodby

CRC Press

521 pages | 20 Color Illus. | 380 B/W Illus.

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Description

Introduction to Liquid Crystals: Chemistry and Physics, Second Edition, relies on only introductory level chemistry and physics as the foundation for understanding liquid crystal science. Liquid crystals combine the material properties of solids with the flow properties of fluids. As such they have provided the foundation for a revolution in low-power, flat-panel display technology (LCDs). In this book, the essential elements of liquid crystal science are introduced and explained from the perspectives of both the chemist and physicist.

Key Features:

  • Introduces and explains the essential elements of liquid crystal science, including discussion of how liquid crystals have been utilized for innovative and important applications. New to this edition are over 300 figures, updated end-of-chapter exercises, and an increased scope that includes recent developments in the field.
  • Combines the knowledge of two eminent scientists in the field; they have fully updated and expanded the text to cover undergraduate/graduate course work as well as current research in what is now a billion-dollar industry.
  • Immerses the reader in the vocabulary, structures, data, and kinetic models, rapidly building up an understanding of the theories and models in current use.
  • Begins with an historical account of the discovery of liquid crystals and continues with a description of how different phases are generated and how different molecular architectures affect liquid crystal properties.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Welcome to a Delicate and Special Phase of Matter

1.1 PHASES OF MATTER

1.2 ORIENTATIONAL AND POSITIONAL ORDER

1.3 TYPES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

1.4 LIQUID CRYSTAL PHASES

1.5 COMPLEX MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURES

1.6 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

1.7 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Chapter 2 A Liquid Crystal - What is it?

2.1 FACE-TO-FACE WITH LIQUID CRYSTALS

2.2 POLYMORPHISM AND HEATS OF TRANSITION

2.3 MIXING SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

2.4 PERIODIC ORDER AND LENGTH SCALES IN 1D, 2D,

AND 3D SYSTEMS

2.5 STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS IN LIQUID CRYSTALS

2.6 DYNAMICS AND FLUCTUATIONS IN LIQUID CRYSTALS

Chapter 3 Nature’s Anisotropic Fluids - It’s All About Direction

3.1 ANISOTROPY

3.2 TENSOR ALGEBRA

3.3 ORDER PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT

3.4 UNIAXIAL VS. BIAXIAL ORDER

3.5 ELECTRIC AND OPTICAL ANISOTROPY

3.6 MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE

3.7 CONTINUUM THEORY

3.8 DISCLINATIONS AND DEFECTS

Chapter 4 Theoretical Insights - So Many Possibilities

4.1 LANDAU-DEGENNES THEORY

4.2 MAIER-SAUPE THEORY

4.3 ONSAGER THEORY

4.4 EXTENSIONS TO THE SMECTIC PHASE

4.5 PRETRANSITIONAL FLUCTUATIONS

4.6 SIMULATION TECHNIQUES

4.7 DEFECT PHASES

4.8 SELF-ASSEMBLY THEORY

Chapter 5 Calamitic Liquid Crystals - Rods, Kinks, and Molecular Design

5.1 THE MOLECULAR BUILDING BLOCKS OF CALAMITIC

LIQUID CRYSTALS

5.2 SELF-ORGANIZATION VERSUS SELF-ASSEMBLY

5.3 NANO- AND MICRO-PHASE SEGREGATION

5.4 CALAMITIC LIQUID CRYSTALS AND PHASE TRANSITIONS

5.5 CHEMICAL MOIETY SELECTION

5.6 ASPECT RATIOS IN MOLECULAR DESIGN OF CALAMITIC

PHASES

5.7 CONJUGATION, POLARIZABILITY, AND SUPRAMOLECULAR

ASPECT RATIOS

5.8 LATERAL INTERACTIONS AND BIAXIAL PHASES

5.9 EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIOS AND LAYER FORMATION

5.10 TILTING IN SMECTIC PHASES 173

Chapter 6 Discotic Liquid Crystals - Stacking the Dishes and the Bowls

6.1 PILING UP THE PENNIES AND DISCOTIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

6.2 STRUCTURES OF MESOPHASES FORMED BY DISK-LIKE

MOLECULES

6.3 CHEMICAL MOIETY SELECTION - HARD DISKS

6.4 CHEMICAL MOEITY SELECTION - DISK PERIPHERY

6.5 CHEMICAL MOIETY SELECTION - DISK THICKNESS

6.6 CHEMICAL MOIETY SELECTION - CHANGING THE DISKLIKE

CORES

6.7 DISCOTICS WITH CONNECTED DISKS

6.8 DISCOTICS WITH DONUT RINGS

6.9 DISCOTICS WITH BOWLIC CORES

6.10 DISCOTIC SUPERMOLECULES WITH HYBRID COLUMNAR

AND CALAMITIC STRUCTURES

Chapter 7 Chiral Liquid Crystals - Twisted and Frustrated

7.1 HANDED LIQUID CRYSTALS

7.2 MOLECULAR ASYMMETRY AND DISSYMMETRY IN LIQUID

CRYSTALS

7.3 OPTICAL PURITY AND ENANTIOMERIC EXCESS

7.4 SYMMETRY BREAKING FOR LOCAL SPACE SYMMETRY

AND FORM CHIRALITY

7.5 HELICAL STRUCTURES OF VARIOUS LIQUID CRYSTAL

PHASES

7.6 NON-HELICAL CHIRAL LIQUID CRYSTAL PHASES

7.7 CHIRAL MESOPHASES SUPPORTED BY THE FORMATION

OF DEFECTS

7.8 CHIRALMESOPHASESANDCONGLOMERATESFORMED

BY ACHIRAL MATERIALS

7.9 CONNECTING LOCAL CHIRALITY TO MACROSCOPIC

CHIRALITY

Chapter 8 Bent-Core Liquid Crystals - It’s Bananas

8.1 MOLECULES OF UNCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURE

8.2 BROKEN SYMMETRY IN BENT-CORE PHASES

8.3 THE BIAXIAL NEMATIC PHASE

8.4 THE B2 PHASE AND LAMELLAR SUB-PHASES

8.5 THE B1 PHASE AND ITS COLUMNAR SUB-PHASES

8.6 SPLAY AND MODULATED STRUCTURES IN B PHASES

Chapter 9 Lyotropic Liquid Crystals - Wet ’n’ Dry

9.1 AMPHIPHILES AND LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

9.2 AMPHIPHILES AND MICELLES

9.3 THE STRUCTURE OF LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

9.4 THE LAMELLAR LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTAL PHASE

9.5 THE HEXAGONAL LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTAL PHASES

9.6 THE DISCONTINUOUS CUBIC LYOTROPIC LIQUID

CRYSTAL PHASES

9.7 THE BICONTINOUS CUBIC LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTAL

PHASES

9.8 PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS AND PHASE DIAGRAMS

9.9 BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

9.10 CHROMONIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

Chapter 10 Polymers, Oligomers & Dendrimers - Big and Beautiful

10.1 MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS

10.2 POLYMERS, OLIGOMERS, AND DENDRIMERS

10.3 MESOGENIC MOIETIES INCORPORATED IN POLYMERS,

OLIGOMERS, AND DENDRIMERS

10.4 MESOGENIC MOIETIES ATTACHED TO POLYMER

BACKBONES

10.5 MESOGENIC MOIETIES ATTACHED TO DENDIMERS

10.6 PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION IN ORGANIZED MEDIA

Chapter 11 Liquid Crystal Science - Techniques and Instruments

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 POLARIZED OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

11.3 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

11.4 REFRACTOMETRY AND CONOSCOPY

11.5 X-RAY DIFFRACTION

11.6 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

11.7 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

11.8 ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS

11.9 OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS

11.10 MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS

11.11 DEVICE TECHNIQUES

Chapter 12 Liquid Crystals in Electric and Magnetic Fields - A Delicate Response

12.1 ELECTRIC POLARIZABILITY

12.2 MAGNETIZATION

12.3 FREDERIKS TRANSITION

12.4 HELIX UNWINDING TRANSITION

12.5 BOUNDARIES

12.6 CONVECTIVE INSTABILITIES

12.7 FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

Chapter 13 Light and Liquid Crystals - A Panoply of Color

13.1 POLARIZED ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

13.2 BIREFRINGENCE

13.3 OPTICAL RETARDATION

13.4 JONES CALCULUS

13.5 CIRCULAR BIREFRINGENCE AND OPTICAL ACTIVITY

13.6 OPTICS OF CHIRAL NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTALS

13.7 LIGHT SCATTERING

13.8 INDUCED BIREFRINGENCE IN THE ISOTROPIC PHASE

Chapter 14 Liquid Crystal Displays - Here, There, and Everywhere

14.1 BASIC STRUCTURE OF LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

14.2 TWISTED NEMATIC DISPLAYS

14.3 VERTICALLY ALIGNED NEMATIC DISPLAYS

14.4 IN-PLANE SWITCHING NEMATIC DISPLAYS

14.5 FERROELECTRIC SMECTIC DISPLAYS

14.6 LCD TECHNOLOGY

14.7 COMPENSATORS

Chapter 15 Other Applications - Optical Fiber Networks to Shampoo

15.1 LIQUID CRYSTAL ON SILICON TECHNOLOGY

15.2 SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATORS

15.3 CIRCULAR POLARIZERS

15.4 TEMPERATURE SENSORS

15.5 LUBRICANTS

15.6 HIGH YIELD STRENGTH POLYMERS

15.7 DETERGENTS, COSMETICS, FOOD, AND DRUGS

Index

About the Authors

Peter J. Collings is Morris L. Clothier Emeritus Professor of Physics at Swarthmore College and Adjunct Professor of Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and past Vice-President of the International Liquid Crystal Society. He is the author of Liquid Crystals: Nature’s Delicate Phase of Matter (Princeton University Press, 1990, 2002) and co-author of the first edition of Introduction to Liquid Crystals: Chemistry and Physics (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

John W. Goodby is Emeritus Professor of Materials Chemistry at the University of York, UK. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and past President of the International Liquid Crystal Society. He is the co-author of Smectic Liquid Crystals: Textures and Structures (Leonard Hill, 1984), Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals: Principles, Properties and Applications (Gordon & Breach 1991), and Senior Editor of the Handbook of Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCI077000
SCIENCE / Solid State Physics