Introduction to Mathematical Proofs  book cover
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2nd Edition

Introduction to Mathematical Proofs




ISBN 9781482246872
Published December 17, 2014 by Chapman and Hall/CRC
414 Pages - 51 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Introduction to Mathematical Proofs helps students develop the necessary skills to write clear, correct, and concise proofs.

Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers.

It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs.

This new edition includes more than 125 new exercises in sections titled More Challenging Exercises. Also, numerous examples illustrate in detail how to write proofs and show how to solve problems. These examples can serve as models for students to emulate when solving exercises.

Several biographical sketches and historical comments have been included to enrich and enliven the text. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It prepares them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and analysis.

Table of Contents

Logic
Statements, Negation, and Compound Statements
Truth Tables and Logical Equivalences
Conditional and Biconditional Statements
Logical Arguments
Open Statements and Quantifiers
Chapter Review

Deductive Mathematical Systems and Proofs
Deductive Mathematical Systems
Mathematical Proofs
Chapter Review

Set Theory
Sets and Subsets
Set Operations
Additional Set Operations
Generalized Set Union and Intersection
Chapter Review

Relations
Relations
The Order Relations <, , >,
Reflexive, Symmetric, Transitive, and Equivalence Relations
Equivalence Relations, Equivalence Classes, and Partitions
Chapter Review

Functions
Functions
Onto Functions, One-to-One Functions and One-to-One Correspondences
Inverse of a Function
Images and Inverse Images of Sets
Chapter Review

Mathematical Induction
Mathematical Induction
The Well-Ordering Principle and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Cardinalities of Sets
Finite Sets
Denumerable and Countable Sets
Uncountable Sets

Proofs from Real Analysis
Sequences
Limit Theorems for Sequences
Monotone Sequences and Subsequences
Cauchy Sequences

Proofs from Group Theory
Binary Operations and Algebraic Structures
Groups
Subgroups and Cyclic Groups

Appendix Reading and Writing Mathematical Proofs

Answers to Selected Exercises

References

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Charles Roberts, PhD, professor, Department of Math and Computer Science, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, USA