Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing

1st Edition

By Iain H. Woodhouse

CRC Press

400 pages | 87 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2005-11-02
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Description

Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing offers an extensive overview of this versatile and extremely precise technology for technically oriented undergraduates and graduate students.

This textbook emphasizes an important shift in conceptualization and directs it toward students with prior knowledge of optical remote sensing: the author dispels any linkage between microwave and optical remote sensing. Instead, he constructs the concept of microwave remote sensing by comparing it to the process of audio perception, explaining the workings of the ear as a metaphor for microwave instrumentation.

This volume takes an “application-driven” approach. Instead of describing the technology and then its uses, this textbook justifies the need for measurement then explains how microwave technology addresses this need.

Following a brief summary of the field and a history of the use of microwaves, the book explores the physical properties of microwaves and the polarimetric properties of electromagnetic waves. It examines the interaction of microwaves with matter, analyzes passive atmospheric and passive surface measurements, and describes the operation of altimeters and scatterometers. The textbook concludes by explaining how high resolution images are created using radars, and how techniques of interferometry can be applied to both passive and active sensors.

Reviews

“This book can serve as a textbook for graduate students on the properties of microwaves and how they can be used to study the Earth, and also as a good reference for remote sensing scientists and engineers who would like a convenient summary of relevant electromagnetic gathered in a single volume. … This book fills an important niche between classical electromagnetic textbooks and detailed application manuals, giving an appreciation of how microwave remote sensing relates discipline science to the fundamentals of radio wave propagation. … The book stands out as a worthy general text that is ideally suited for introductory coursework o tot serve as an advanced reference. This book should find its way onto many desks and bookshelves belonging to remote sensing professionals and future remote sensing professionals.”

—In PE&RS, Vol. 73, No. 7, July 2007

Table of Contents

WHY MICROWAVES?

Overview of Microwave Systems

Information from Passive Microwave Imagers

Information from Passive Microwave Sounders

Information from Active Microwave Instruments

How Can This Information be Used?

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROWAVES

In the Beginning

Out of the Darkness: Maxwell and Hertz

Radios, Death Rays and Radar

The Venus Ruler and Little Green Men

Imaging Radar

Microwave Remote Sensing from Space

Further Reading

PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Physical Properties of EM Waves

Electromagnetic Radiation as Waves

Complex Wave Description

Energy and Power of Waves

Polarisation

Combination of Waves

Coherence

The Most Important Section in This Book

Phase as a (Relative) Distance Measure

Combining Two Waves in 2-D

Quantifying the Interference Pattern

Passive Case

Multiple Source Interference Pattern

Beamwidth and Angular Resolution

Huygens’ Wavelets

More on Coherence

Propagation of Microwaves

Through Lossy Media

Moving Sources

Where Do Microwaves Come From?

How Are They Produced in Nature?

Radiation Laws

How Are Microwaves Produced Artificially?

Further Reading

POLARIMETRY

Describing Polarised Waves

Summary of Linear Basis

Superposition of Polarised Waves

Representing Polarisation

Poincaré sphere

Mathematical Description

Stokes Vector

Brightness Stokes Vector

Partially Polarised Waves

The Stokes Scattering Matrix

The Scattering Matrix

Target Vector

Covariance Matrix

Passive Polarimetry

Polarimetry in Radar

Radar Polarimeters

Polarimetric Synthesis and Response Curves

Important Polarimetric Properties

Unpolarised Power

Degree of Polarisation and Coefficient of Variation

Polarimetric Ratios

Coherent Parameters

Polarimetric Decomposition

Further Reading

MICROWAVES IN THE REAL WORLD

Continuous Media and the Atmosphere

Radiative Transfer Theory

Microwave Brightness Temperature

Spectral Lines

Line Broadening

Faraday Rotation

Interaction With Discrete Objects

Diffraction

Importance of Diffraction

Scattering

Radar Cross-section

Importance of Scattering Theory

Scattering and Emission from Volumes

Transmission Through Volumes

Emission

Scattering

Reflection and Emission from Smooth Surfaces

Scattering from Smooth Boundaries

Emission from Smooth Boundaries

Summary

Scattering and Emission from Rough Surfaces

Definition of “Rough”

Effects of Roughness

Summary

Non-Random (Periodic) Surfaces

Scattering and Emission from Natural Surfaces

Oceans and Lakes

Hydrometeors

Ice and Snow

Freshwater Ice

Glacial Ice

Sea Ice

Bare Rock and Deserts

Soils

Vegetation

Special Scatterers

Corner Reflectors

Moving Targets

Mixed Targets

Further Reading

DETECTING MICROWAVES

General Approach

Conceptual Approach to Microwave Systems

A Word of Warning

Basic Microwave Radiometer

The Antenna

Parabolic Antennas

The Dipole Antenna

Array Antennas

Antenna Properties

The Receiver

Detector

Coherent Systems

Active Systems

System Performance

Noise and Sensitivity

Sensitivity Considerations for Receivers

Other Sources of Uncertainty

Calibration

Antenna Calibration

Verification and Validation

Types of Calibration

Strategies for Calibrating Receivers

Final Remarks on Calibration

Further Reading

ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING

Atmospheric Sounding

The Need for Measurements

The Earth’s Atmosphere

Water Vapour and Oxygen

Clouds and Precipitation

Ozone

Chlorine Monoxide

Other Relevant Measurements

Principles of Measurement

Theoretical Basis of Sounding

The Forward Model

Simple Formulation of the Forward Model

The Inverse Model

Solving the Inverse Problem

The Influence Functions

Viewing Geometries

Nadir Sounding

Limb Sounding

Passive Rainfall Mapping

The Need for Measurements

Principles of Measurement

Emission Method

Scattering Method

Further Reading

PASSIVE IMAGING

Principles of Measurement

Background

Practical Radiometers

Viewing Geometries

The Generic Forward Model

Oceans

The Need for Measurements

Principles of Measurement: SST

Principles of Measurement: Ocean Salinity

Principles of Measurement: Ocean Winds

Sea Ice

The Need for Measurements

Sea Ice Concentration

Land

The Need for Measurements

The Forward Problem Over Land

Empirical Approaches to Snow Depth

A Final Comment on Passive Polarimetry

Further Reading

ACTIVE MICROWAVES

Principles of Measurement

What is RADAR?

Basic Radar Operation

The Generic Equations of Radar Performance

The Radar Equation

Range resolution

Radar Altimeters

The Need for Altimeter Measurements

Altimeter Geometry

Instrumentation

Echo Shape Analysis

Range Ambiguity

Accuracy of Height Retrievals

Scanning Altimeters

Calibration and Validation

Improving Directionality

Sub-Beamwidth Resolution

Synthetic Aperture Altimeters

Scatterometers

The Need for Scatterometer Measurements

General Operation

Rain Radar

Windscatterometers

Polarimetric Scatterometers

Further Reading

IMAGING RADAR

The Need for Imaging Radar

Oceans

Sea Ice

Terrestrial Surfaces

The Water Cloud Model for Vegetation

Other Uses of Radar Imagery

What is an Image?

Radar Image Construction

Side-Looking Airborne Radar

Ground Range resolution

Azimuth Resolution

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

Aperture Synthesis: A Doppler Interpretation

Aperture Synthesis: A Geometric Explanation

Geometry vs. Doppler

SAR Focussing

Radar Equation for SAR

Geometric Distortions in Radar Images

Lay-over and Foreshortening

Radar Shadow

Motion Errors

Moving Targets

Operational Limits

Ambiguities

Coverage vs PRF

Other SAR Modes

ScanSAR Operation

Spotlight Mode

Working With SAR Images

Speckle

Speckle Statistics

Speckle Filtering

Geometric Correction

Limitations of Geometric Correction

SAR Data Formats

Extracting Topography from SAR Images

Stereo SAR Radargrammetry

SAR Clinometry

Further Reading

INTERFEROMETRY

The Need for Interferometric Measurements

Principles of Interferometry

Phase Measurements

Application of Dual Systems

Interferometry for Resolving Direction

Passive Imaging Interferometry

Radar Interferometry

Interferometric Altimetry

Interferometric SAR

InSAR Viewing Geometries

Interferometric Coherence Magnitude

Decorrelation

Summary of Decorrelation

Practical DEM Generation

InSAR Processing Chain

Vegetation Height Estimation

Single Frequency

Dual-Frequency

Polarimetric Interferometry and Multibaseline

            Interferometry

SAR Tomography

Differential SAR Interferometry

Considerations and Limitations

Atmospheric Water Vapour

Permanent Scatterer Interferometry

Along-Track Interferometry

Further Reading

APPENDIX: Summary of Useful

            Mathematics

Angles

Degrees

Radians

Steradian (solid angle)

Some Useful Trigonometric Relations

Logs and Exponentials

Some Fundamental Properties

Special values

Series Expansions

Complex Numbers

Vectors

Law of Vector Algebra

Cross or Vector Product

Matrices

Matrix Algebra

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC036000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems