Introduction to Nonimaging Optics: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introduction to Nonimaging Optics

2nd Edition

By Julio Chaves

CRC Press

556 pages

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Description

Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition:

  • Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging optics
  • Adds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixing
  • Incorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, integral invariants, and étendue 2-D
  • Contains 21 chapters, 24 fully worked and several other examples, and 1,000+ illustrations, including photos of real devices
  • Addresses applications ranging from solar energy concentration to illumination engineering

Introduction to Nonimaging Optics, Second Edition invites newcomers to explore the growing field of nonimaging optics, while providing seasoned veterans with an extensive reference book.

Reviews

"… an essential book for those wanting to improve their knowledge of nonimaging optical design theory and techniques. It is extremely comprehensive, well organized, well written, and well edited, with numerous excellent figures and detailed examples."

—John C. Bortz, JCB Research, LLC, Spokane, Washington, USA

"Outstanding book with many thoroughly worked-out examples that make learning nonimaging optics easy."

—Dr. William Cassarly, SPIE Fellow

"… provides a comprehensive coverage of the field of nonimaging optics, describing both basic and advanced concepts and design methods. Explanations are intuitive; it is profusely illustrated and contains many useful examples. … appropriate for those starting in the field, as well as for those already working in nonimaging optics."

—Juan Carlos Miñano, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

"The second edition of this book reflects the significant and recent developments in the field of nonimaging optical devices. More than 45 percent of the material in this edition is new, including four new chapters. The amount of material covered by Chaves is enormous, ranging from the Winston-Welford design method to Kohler optics and to luminaries. This book is aimed at optical engineers and designers of all levels; however, it is not meant to serve as an introduction to geometrical optics. Some of the results are given as exercises which will be useful for undergraduate engineering and science students."

Optics & Photonics News, February 2016

Table of Contents

NONIMAGING OPTICS

Why Use Nonimaging Optics

Area and Angle

Collimators: Illumination of a Large Receiver

Concentrators: Illumination of a Small Receiver

Collimators and Concentrators Summary

Collimators Tolerances

Concentrators Tolerances

Nonuniform Sources

Solar Concentrators

Light Flux

Wavefronts and the SMS

References

Fundamental Concepts

Introduction

Imaging and Nonimaging Optics

The Compound Parabolic Concentrator

Maximum Concentration

Examples

References

Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators

Introduction

Concentrators for Sources at a Finite Distance

Concentrators for Tubular Receivers

Angle Transformers

The String Method

Optics with Dielectrics

Asymmetrical Optics

Examples

References

Étendue and the Winston–Welford Design Method

Introduction

Conservation of Étendue

Nonideal Optical Systems

Étendue as a Geometrical Quantity

Two-Dimensional Systems

Étendue as an Integral of the Optical Momentum

Étendue as a Volume in Phase Space

Étendue as a Difference in Optical Path Length

Flow-Lines

The Winston–Welford Design Method

Caustics as Flow-Lines

Maximum Concentration

Étendue and the Shape Factor

Examples

References

Vector Flux

Introduction

Definition of Vector Flux

Vector Flux as a Bisector of the Edge Rays

Vector Flux and Étendue

Vector Flux for Disk-Shaped Lambertian Sources

Design of Concentrators Using the Vector Flux

Examples

References

Combination of Primaries with Flow-Line Secondaries

Introduction

Reshaping the Receiver

Compound Elliptical Concentrator Secondary

Truncated Trumpet Secondary

Trumpet Secondary for a Large Receiver

Secondaries with Multiple Entry Apertures

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Maximum Concentration

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Lower Concentration

Fresnel Primaries

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators for Fresnel Primaries

Examples

References

Stepped Flow-Line Nonimaging Optics

Introduction

Compact Concentrators

Concentrators with Gaps

Examples

References

Luminaires

Introduction

Luminaires for Large Source and Flat Mirrors

The General Approach for Flat Sources

Far-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources

Far-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources

Near-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources

Near-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources

Luminaires for Circular Sources

Examples

Appendix A: Mirror Differential Equation for Linear Sources

Appendix B: Mirror Differential Equation for Circular Sources

References

Miñano–Benitez Design Method (Simultaneous Multiple Surface)

Introduction

The RR Optic

SMS with a Thin Edge

The XR, RX, and XX Optics

The Miñano–Benitez Design Method with Generalized Wavefronts

The RXI Optic: Iterative Calculation

The RXI Optic: Direct Calculation

SMS Optical Path Length Adjustment

SMS 3-D

Asymmetric SMS 3-D

SMS 3-D with a Thin Edge

Other Types of Simultaneous Multiple Surface Optics

Examples

References

Wavefronts for Prescribed Output

Introduction

Wavefronts for Prescribed Intensity

Wavefronts for Prescribed Irradiance

Bundle Coupling and Prescribed Irradiance

References

Infinitesimal Étendue Optics

Introduction

Infinitesimal Étendue Optics

Continuous Optical Surfaces

Fresnel Optics

Finite Distance Source

Examples

References

Köhler Optics and Color-Mixing

Introduction

Köhler Optics

Solar Energy Concentration Based on Köhler Optics

Prescribed Irradiance Köhler Optics

Color-Mixing Based on Köhler Optics

SMS-Based Köhler Optics

Color-Mixing with Grooved Reflectors

Examples

References

The Miñano Design Method Using Poisson Brackets

Introduction

Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators for Inhomogeneous Media

Edge Rays as a Tubular Surface in Phase Space

Poisson Brackets

Curvilinear Coordinate System

Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators

An Example of an Ideal Two-Dimensional Concentrator

Design of Three-Dimensional Concentrators

An Example of an Ideal Three-Dimensional Concentrator

References

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Geometrical Optics

Fermat’s Principle

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulations

Optical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

Another Form for the Hamiltonian Formulation

Change of Coordinate System in the Hamilton Equations

Integral Invariants

Movements of the System as Canonical Transformations

References

Rays and Wavefronts

Optical Momentum

The Eikonal Equation

The Ray Equation

Optical Path Length between Two Wavefronts

References

Reflection and Refraction

Reflected and Refracted Rays

The Laws of Reflection and Refraction

References

Symmetry

Conservation of Momentum and Apparent Refractive Index

Linear Symmetry

Circular Symmetry and Skew Invariant

References

Étendue in Phase Space

Étendue and the Point Characteristic Function

Étendue in Hamiltonian Optics

Integral Invariants and Étendue

Refraction, Reflection, and Étendue 2-D

Étendue 2-D Examples

References

Classical Mechanics and Geometrical Optics

Fermat’s Principle and Maupertuis’ Principle

Skew Invariant and Conservation of Angular Momentum

Potential in Mechanics and Refractive Index in Optics

References

Radiometry, Photometry, and Radiation Heat Transfer

Definitions

Conservation of Radiance in Homogeneous Media

Conservation of Basic Radiance in (Specular) Reflections and Refractions

Étendue and the Shape Factor

Two-Dimensional Systems

Illumination of a Plane

References

Plane Curves

General Considerations

Parabola

Ellipse

Hyperbola

Conics

Involute

Winding Macrofocal Parabola

Unwinding Macrofocal Parabola

Winding Macrofocal Ellipse

Unwinding Macrofocal Ellipse

Cartesian Oval for Parallel Rays

Cartesian Oval for Converging or Diverging Rays

Cartesian Ovals Calculated Point by Point

Equiangular Spiral

Functions Definitions

References

About the Author

Julio Chaves completed his undergraduate studies in physics engineering at the Higher Technical Institute, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal in 1995. He received his Ph.D in physics from the same institute. Dr. Chaves did postgraduate work at the Solar Energy Institute, Technical University of Madrid, Spain in 2002, and in 2003, he joined Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI), LLC, Altadena, California, USA. In 2006, he moved back to Madrid, Spain, and has been working with LPI since. Dr. Chaves developed the new concepts of stepped flow-line optics and ideal light confinement by caustics (caustics as flow lines). He is the co-inventor of several patents and the coauthor of many papers in the field of nonimaging optics. He also participated in the early development of the simultaneous multiple surface design method in three-dimensional geometry.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI053000
SCIENCE / Optics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC031010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable