2nd Edition

Introduction to Nonimaging Optics

By Julio Chaves Copyright 2016
    788 Pages
    by CRC Press

    786 Pages 18 Color & 1008 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    786 Pages 18 Color & 1008 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition:

    • Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging optics
    • Adds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixing
    • Incorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, integral invariants, and étendue 2-D
    • Contains 21 chapters, 24 fully worked and several other examples, and 1,000+ illustrations, including photos of real devices
    • Addresses applications ranging from solar energy concentration to illumination engineering

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics, Second Edition invites newcomers to explore the growing field of nonimaging optics, while providing seasoned veterans with an extensive reference book.

    Why Use Nonimaging Optics
    Area and Angle
    Collimators: Illumination of a Large Receiver
    Concentrators: Illumination of a Small Receiver
    Collimators and Concentrators Summary
    Collimators Tolerances
    Concentrators Tolerances
    Nonuniform Sources
    Solar Concentrators
    Light Flux
    Wavefronts and the SMS

    Fundamental Concepts
    Imaging and Nonimaging Optics
    The Compound Parabolic Concentrator
    Maximum Concentration

    Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators
    Concentrators for Sources at a Finite Distance
    Concentrators for Tubular Receivers
    Angle Transformers
    The String Method
    Optics with Dielectrics
    Asymmetrical Optics

    Étendue and the Winston–Welford Design Method
    Conservation of Étendue
    Nonideal Optical Systems
    Étendue as a Geometrical Quantity
    Two-Dimensional Systems
    Étendue as an Integral of the Optical Momentum
    Étendue as a Volume in Phase Space
    Étendue as a Difference in Optical Path Length
    The Winston–Welford Design Method
    Caustics as Flow-Lines
    Maximum Concentration
    Étendue and the Shape Factor

    Vector Flux
    Definition of Vector Flux
    Vector Flux as a Bisector of the Edge Rays
    Vector Flux and Étendue
    Vector Flux for Disk-Shaped Lambertian Sources
    Design of Concentrators Using the Vector Flux

    Combination of Primaries with Flow-Line Secondaries
    Reshaping the Receiver
    Compound Elliptical Concentrator Secondary
    Truncated Trumpet Secondary
    Trumpet Secondary for a Large Receiver
    Secondaries with Multiple Entry Apertures
    Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Maximum Concentration
    Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Lower Concentration
    Fresnel Primaries
    Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators for Fresnel Primaries

    Stepped Flow-Line Nonimaging Optics
    Compact Concentrators
    Concentrators with Gaps

    Luminaires for Large Source and Flat Mirrors
    The General Approach for Flat Sources
    Far-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources
    Far-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources
    Near-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources
    Near-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources
    Luminaires for Circular Sources
    Appendix A: Mirror Differential Equation for Linear Sources
    Appendix B: Mirror Differential Equation for Circular Sources

    Miñano–Benitez Design Method (Simultaneous Multiple Surface)
    The RR Optic
    SMS with a Thin Edge
    The XR, RX, and XX Optics
    The Miñano–Benitez Design Method with Generalized Wavefronts
    The RXI Optic: Iterative Calculation
    The RXI Optic: Direct Calculation
    SMS Optical Path Length Adjustment
    SMS 3-D
    Asymmetric SMS 3-D
    SMS 3-D with a Thin Edge
    Other Types of Simultaneous Multiple Surface Optics

    Wavefronts for Prescribed Output
    Wavefronts for Prescribed Intensity
    Wavefronts for Prescribed Irradiance
    Bundle Coupling and Prescribed Irradiance

    Infinitesimal Étendue Optics
    Infinitesimal Étendue Optics
    Continuous Optical Surfaces
    Fresnel Optics
    Finite Distance Source

    Köhler Optics and Color-Mixing
    Köhler Optics
    Solar Energy Concentration Based on Köhler Optics
    Prescribed Irradiance Köhler Optics
    Color-Mixing Based on Köhler Optics
    SMS-Based Köhler Optics
    Color-Mixing with Grooved Reflectors

    The Miñano Design Method Using Poisson Brackets
    Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators for Inhomogeneous Media
    Edge Rays as a Tubular Surface in Phase Space
    Poisson Brackets
    Curvilinear Coordinate System
    Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators
    An Example of an Ideal Two-Dimensional Concentrator
    Design of Three-Dimensional Concentrators
    An Example of an Ideal Three-Dimensional Concentrator

    Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Geometrical Optics
    Fermat’s Principle
    Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulations
    Optical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian
    Another Form for the Hamiltonian Formulation
    Change of Coordinate System in the Hamilton Equations
    Integral Invariants
    Movements of the System as Canonical Transformations

    Rays and Wavefronts
    Optical Momentum
    The Eikonal Equation
    The Ray Equation
    Optical Path Length between Two Wavefronts

    Reflection and Refraction
    Reflected and Refracted Rays
    The Laws of Reflection and Refraction

    Conservation of Momentum and Apparent Refractive Index
    Linear Symmetry
    Circular Symmetry and Skew Invariant

    Étendue in Phase Space
    Étendue and the Point Characteristic Function
    Étendue in Hamiltonian Optics
    Integral Invariants and Étendue
    Refraction, Reflection, and Étendue 2-D
    Étendue 2-D Examples

    Classical Mechanics and Geometrical Optics
    Fermat’s Principle and Maupertuis’ Principle
    Skew Invariant and Conservation of Angular Momentum
    Potential in Mechanics and Refractive Index in Optics

    Radiometry, Photometry, and Radiation Heat Transfer
    Conservation of Radiance in Homogeneous Media
    Conservation of Basic Radiance in (Specular) Reflections and Refractions
    Étendue and the Shape Factor
    Two-Dimensional Systems
    Illumination of a Plane

    Plane Curves
    General Considerations
    Winding Macrofocal Parabola
    Unwinding Macrofocal Parabola
    Winding Macrofocal Ellipse
    Unwinding Macrofocal Ellipse
    Cartesian Oval for Parallel Rays
    Cartesian Oval for Converging or Diverging Rays
    Cartesian Ovals Calculated Point by Point
    Equiangular Spiral
    Functions Definitions


    Julio Chaves completed his undergraduate studies in physics engineering at the Higher Technical Institute, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal in 1995. He received his Ph.D in physics from the same institute. Dr. Chaves did postgraduate work at the Solar Energy Institute, Technical University of Madrid, Spain in 2002, and in 2003, he joined Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI), LLC, Altadena, California, USA. In 2006, he moved back to Madrid, Spain, and has been working with LPI since. Dr. Chaves developed the new concepts of stepped flow-line optics and ideal light confinement by caustics (caustics as flow lines). He is the co-inventor of several patents and the coauthor of many papers in the field of nonimaging optics. He also participated in the early development of the simultaneous multiple surface design method in three-dimensional geometry.

    "… an essential book for those wanting to improve their knowledge of nonimaging optical design theory and techniques. It is extremely comprehensive, well organized, well written, and well edited, with numerous excellent figures and detailed examples."
    —John C. Bortz, JCB Research, LLC, Spokane, Washington, USA

    "Outstanding book with many thoroughly worked-out examples that make learning nonimaging optics easy."
    —Dr. William Cassarly, SPIE Fellow

    "… provides a comprehensive coverage of the field of nonimaging optics, describing both basic and advanced concepts and design methods. Explanations are intuitive; it is profusely illustrated and contains many useful examples. … appropriate for those starting in the field, as well as for those already working in nonimaging optics."
    —Juan Carlos Miñano, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

    "The second edition of this book reflects the significant and recent developments in the field of nonimaging optical devices. More than 45 percent of the material in this edition is new, including four new chapters. The amount of material covered by Chaves is enormous, ranging from the Winston-Welford design method to Kohler optics and to luminaries. This book is aimed at optical engineers and designers of all levels; however, it is not meant to serve as an introduction to geometrical optics. Some of the results are given as exercises which will be useful for undergraduate engineering and science students."
    Optics & Photonics News, February 2016