3rd Edition

Introduction to Plant Biotechnology (3/e)





ISBN 9781578086368
Published January 3, 2009 by CRC Press
760 Pages

USD $89.95

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Book Description

This book has been written to meet the needs of students for biotechnology courses at various levels of undergraduate and graduate studies. This book covers all the important aspects of plant tissue culture viz. nutrition media, micropropagation, organ culture, cell suspension culture, haploid culture, protoplast isolation and fusion, secondary metabolite production, somaclonal variation and cryopreservation. For good understanding of recombinant DNA technology, chapters on genetic material, organization of DNA in the genome and basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA technology have been added. Different aspects on rDNA technology covered gene cloning, isolation of plant genes, transposons and gene tagging, in vitro mutagenesis, PCR, molecular markers and marker assisted selection, gene transfer methods, chloroplast and mitochondrion DNA transformation, genomics and bioinformatics. Genomics covers functional and structural genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, sequencing status of different organisms and DNA chip technology. Application of biotechnology has been discussed as transgenics in crop improvement and impact of recombinant DNA technology mainly in relation to biotech crops.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Abbreviations
List of color figures

PART I: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
INTRODUCTION
New technologies
Origin of biotechnology
History
LABORATORY ORGANIZATION
Washing facility
General laboratory and media preparation area
Transfer area
Culturing facilities
Green houses
Laboratory and personal safety
NUTRITION MEDIUM
Units for solution preparation
Media composition
STERILIZATION TECHNIQUES
Preparation of sterile media, containers and small instruments
Maintenance of aseptic conditions
Sterilization of explant
Protocols
TYPES OF CULTURE
Cytodifferentiation
Organogenic differentiation
Types of culture
Protocols
MICROPROPAGATION
Axillary bud proliferation approach
Organogenesis
Embryogenesis
Advantages of micropropagation
Problems associated with micropropagation
Protocols
CELL SUSPENSION AND SECONDARY METABOLITES
Types of suspension cultures
Growth measurements
Synchronization of suspension culture cells
Technique for single cell culture—Bergmann cell plating technique
Production of secondary metabolites
Morphological and chemical differentiation
Application
Problems associated with secondary metabolite production
Immobilized cell systems
Biotransformation
Secondary metabolite production using genetically engineered plant cell cultures
Protocols
IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF HAPLOIDS
Androgenic methods
Significance and uses of haploids
Problems
Gynogenic haploids
Chromosome elimination technique for production of haploids in cereals (Barley and wheat)
Protocol
PROTOPLAST ISOLATION AND FUSION
Protoplast isolation
Protoplast development
Cell wall formation
Growth, division and plant regeneration
Somatic hybridization
Identification and selection of hybrid cells
Verification & characterization of somatic hybrids
Chromosome number in somatic hybrids
Cybrids
Potential of somatic hybridization
Problems and limitations of somatic hybridization
Protocol
SOMACLONAL VARIATION
Nomenclature
Schemes for obtaining somaclonal variation
Application of somaclonal variation
Basis of somaclonal variation
Disadvantages
Gametoclonal variation
GERMPLASM STORAGE & CRYOPRESERVATION
Cryopreservation
Slow growth method
Achievements
Applications
Limitations

PART II: GENETIC MATERIAL AND ITS ORGANIZATION
GENETIC MATERIAL
Sugars
Amino acids
Nucleotides
Polynucleotides
Genetic material
ORGANIZATION OF DNA AND GENE EXPRESSION
Different forms of DNA
Supercoiling—Tertiary structure of DNA
Cruciform—Tertiary structure of DNA
Eukaryotic DNA organization into nucleosomes
DNA content
Denaturation
Flow of genetic information: central dogma
Organization of genes in DNA molecules
Plant gene structure as discontinuous gene
Control sequences
Types of RNA molecules
Transcription
Genetic code and translation

PART III: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
BASIC TECHNIQUES
Agarose gel electrophoresis
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Nucleic acid blotting
Protein blotting
Dot blot technique
Autoradiography
E. coli transformation
Protocol
GENE CLONING: Cutting and joining DNA Molecules
Introduction
Enzymes for cutting: Restriction endonucleases
Joining DNA molecules
DNA modifying enzymes
Linkers and adaptors
Protocol
GENE CLONING: Vectors
Cloning vectors—features
Biology of E. coli K-12
Plasmids
Cosmids
Bacteriophage vectors
Phagemids
Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)
P1 phage vectors
P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC)
Transposon
Shuttle vectors
Expression vectors
Protocols
GENE CLONING: cDNA and Genomic Cloning and Analysis of Cloned DNA Sequences
Gene libraries
cDNA cloning
Genomic cloning
Identification and analysis of cloned genes
Approaches for identification of genes
Detection of nucleic acid sequences
Radioactive probe preparation and labeling
Non-radioactive labeling
DNA sequencing
POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Introduction
Procedure
Components in a polymerase chain reaction
Inverse PCR
Reverse transcriptase mediated PCR (RT-PCR)
Cloning of PCR products
Applications
Advantages
Problems
Protocol
IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS
Site directed mutagenesis
Insertional mutagenesis
TRANSPOSON GENETIC ELEMENTS AND GENE TAGGING
Transposable elements in bacteria
Transposable elements in eukaryotes
Classification
Transposon gene tagging
GENE ISOLATION
Chromosome maps
General strategies for cloning genes from plants
MOLECULAR MARKERS AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION
Morphological markers
Biochemical markers
Molecular markers
History of evolution of molecular markers
Non-PCR based approaches
PCR based techniques
Targeted PCR and sequencing
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
Molecular markers and plant diversity
Fingerprinting
Marker assisted selection
Protocol
GENE TRANSFER IN PLANTS
Transient and stable expression
Marker genes
Chimeric gene vectors
Gene transfer methods
Status and expression of transferred genes
Protocols
CHLOROPLAST AND MITOCHONDRION DNA TRANSFORMATION
Chloroplast Transformation
The Plastid chromosome
Selectable markers
Homoplastomic lines development
Advantages
Applications
Limitations of Chloroplast Transformation
Mitochondrion transformation
Targetting of Transgene Product into Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
TRANSGENICS IN CROP IMPROVEMENT
Resistance to biotic stresses
IMPACT OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
Agriculture
Status of transgenic crops
Benefits of transgenic crops
Biotech crops in India
Insect resistant plants through transgenic approach
Herbicide tolerant plants through transgenic approach
Plant based pharmaceuticals
Production of biofuels
Transgenic crops in future
Biotechnology in Process Industry
Bioremediation
Healthcare applications
Future
BIOSAFETY CONCERNS AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
Risk analysis
Containment
Biosafety levels
Good laboratory practices
Good laboratory practices
Risk Management in Field Trials
National Biosafety Regulatory framework in India
Recombinant DNA safety Guidelines
Revised Guidelines for Research in Transgenic Plants
Cross border movement of transgenic germplasm for research purposes
Biosafety concerns
Socio-economic and ethical considerations
International protocols and conventions on biosafety
Regulatory frameworks in different countries
GENOMICS
Introduction
Mapping of prokaryotic genomes
Mapping of eukaryotic genomes
Gene location in DNA sequences
Yeast (S. cerevisiae) genome
Human genome
Arabidopsis genome
Rice genome
Functional genomics
Patterns of gene expression
Proteomics
Metabolomics
Phenomics
BIOINFORMATICS
Development of Bioinformatics
Role of Internet in Bioinformatics
Online
Browsing working and downloading
Sequences and Nomenclature
File Formats
Files of Structural data
Submission of Sequences
Databases
Molecular Biology Databases
Bioinformatics Databases and analysis Services
Specialized Resources
Bioinformatics Databases and Analysis Services
Bioinformatics tools for access to databases
Integrated Molecular Biology Database system
Database integration strategies
Detection of genes
Applications
Challenges
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
Protection of intellectual property
Appendix
Glossary
Author index
Subject index

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Author(s)

Biography

H. S. Chawla

Support Material

Ancillaries