Introduction to Plasma Dynamics  book cover
1st Edition

Introduction to Plasma Dynamics

ISBN 9781439881323
Published December 6, 2012 by CRC Press
834 Pages 397 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion–plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock waves, stationary flows, elements of plasma chemistry, and principles of plasma lasers.

The author presents specific examples to demonstrate how to use the models and to familiarize readers with modern plasma technologies. The book describes structures of magnetic fields—one- and zero-dimensional plasma models. It considers single-, two-, and multi-component simulation models, kinetics and ionization processes, radiation transport, and plasma interaction with solid surfaces. The text also examines self-organization and general problems associated with instabilities in plasma systems. In addition, it discusses cosmic plasma dynamic systems, such as Earth’s magnetosphere, spiral nebulas, and plasma associated with the Sun.

This text provides wide-range coverage of issues related to plasma dynamics, with a final chapter addressing advanced plasma technologies, including plasma generators, plasma in the home, space propulsion engines, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. It demonstrates how to approach the analysis of complex plasma systems, taking into account the diversity of plasma environments. Presenting a well-rounded introduction to plasma dynamics, the book takes into consideration the models of plasma phenomena and their relationships to one another as well as their applications.

Table of Contents

What is plasma?
Region of rarefied non-relativistic plasma in the coordinates n, T
History of plasma investigations
Features of plasma research

Fields, particles, blocks (point models)
Electromagnetic fields
Movement of particles in electromagnetic fields
Block (‘zero-dimensional’) models of plasma systems
Elements of classic corpuscular optics (CCO)
Dielectric permittivity and waves in homogeneous cold plasma
Block models of pulsed plasma systems (pulsed plasma guns and Z-pinches)
Simplest models of static magnetic traps

One-fluid plasma models
Special features of hydrodynamic models
Examples of Euler hydrodynamics problems
One-fluid magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD)
MHD statics
Linear MHD waves in homogeneous plasma
Stationary plasma flows in the transverse magnetic field
Numerical modelling of MHD flows

Two-fluid hydrodynamic plasma models
Equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics
Electron magnetic hydrodynamics. Generalised Ohm’s law
Hall structures
Static configurations in the two-fluid hydrodynamics
Linear waves in homogeneous plasma (two-fluid model)
Dissipation-free axial-symmetric flows in the two-component hydrodynamics
Numerical and experimental studies of (quasi-) steady flows in coaxial systems with the intrinsic magnetic field
Dynamics of plasma flows in magnetic fields

Collisionless kinetic models of processes in plasma Vlasov-Maxwell equations
Initial concepts
Vlasov-Maxwell equations
‘Static’ kinetic configurations
Kinetics of waves in plasma at H0 = 0
Oscillations of two-component plasma
Quasi-linear approximation

Kinetics of two-component plasma in classic collisions
Kinetics of colliding charged particles
Transfer equations in two-fluid hydrodynamics
Examples of collisional relaxation in Coulomb plasma
Effect of the thermal force on equilibrium and heat transfer in plasma configuration
Kinetics of departure of plasma particles from traps
Plasma optics (hybrid models)
Boltzmann–Davydov kinetic equation for electrons in weakly ionised plasma

Plasma processes with transformation of particles and radiation
Velocity of transformation processes
Elementary radiation processes
Radiation transition equation (photon kinetics)
Schemes for describing the dynamics of the particles of transforming plasma
Radiation value of the ion in the coronal model
Volume processes in stationary plasma thrusters (SPT) and their similarity laws
Shock waves with radiation
Flows of ionising plasma in the coaxial
Glow and arc discharges
Systems using separated excitation levels of particles

Interaction of plasma with the surface of solids
Processes on the surface of the solid
Electron boundary layers
Examples of boundary processes with heavy particles taking part
Surface-determined discharges (using the stationary plasma thruster as the example
Examples of near electrode processes
Dusty plasma

Instabilities and self-organisation of plasma dynamic systems
Examples of identical hydrodynamic and plasma instabilities
Examples of specific MHD perturbations of plasma systems
Modelling equations of ‘autonomous’ plasma structures (‘auto-structures’)
Stochasticity of the processes in plasma
Active methods of stabilising plasma instabilities

Processes in cosmos and plasma dynamics
Planetary vortices. Spiral nebulas
Magnetosphere of the Earth
The Sun
On the evolution of the stars of the main sequence

Examples of modern plasma technologies
Plasma generators
Plasma in the home
Formation of structures on solids by plasma technology
Ion and plasma space propulsion engines
The problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF)
From generators of multiply-charged ions to the island of stability and black holes in the experiment

Appendix A: Comments on the topology of the magnetic field
Appendix B: Inertial controlled thermonuclear synthesis using liners
Appendix C: Reconnection of lines of force in plasma
Appendix D: Ion magnetrons and thrusters with an anodic layer
Appendix E: Tokamaks as a possible reactor for D–T synthesis
Appendix F: High β in large tokamaks
Appendix G: Ionisation of atoms and ions by electronic impact


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Professor A. I. Morozov was one of the founders of plasma dynamics. His main scientific interests included plasma accelerators, plasma optics, magnetic plasma sustainment, and philosophy of science. He played a major role in the development and construction of space stationary plasma engines and worked at the Institute of Atomic Energy and the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow.