Policing is in a profound period of change, the result of recent government reform, a renewed drive for professionalism as well as the need to adapt to a rapidly changing society. This book provides a highly readable and up to date introduction to the work of the police, exploring what this currently involved and the directions it may be going in. It is designed for student police officers starting their probation and training, students studying public or uniformed service courses in colleges, students taking undergraduate courses in policing and criminal justice, and anybody else who wants to know about policing today.
The book describes all the key elements of policing work. The first two parts look at how the police functions as an organization, with chapters devoted to important new areas of crime reduction partnerships and forensic support in investigation and enforcement. The third section covers key aspects of practical police work, with coverage of such challenging areas as anti-social behaviour and terrorism. The book contains a wide range of practical tasks and activities, and links are made throughout to the new Initial Police Learning and Development Programme and National Occupational Standards in Policing.
Table of Contents
Glossary of police terminology. Notes on contributors. Special features of the book. Part 1: The Police Framework 1. The Police Organisation 1.1 A brief history of the police 1.2 The criminal justice sector and the police service 1.3 The organisation of police forces 1.4 What is the police service for? 1.5 The Home Office, the National Police Plan and the performance of police forces 1.6 What do the public think of the police? 1.7 Reassurance, effectiveness and efficiency 1.8 Policing by consent 1.9 Themes in modern policing 2. The Probationer Officer 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP) 2.3 Community engagement 2.4 Competencies and standards 2.5 Professional Development Units 2.6 Approaches to adult learning 2.7 Role play 2.8 Reflective practice 2.9 The experimental learning cycle 2.10 Action planning 2.11 Pre-reads and distance learning packages 2.12 Further considerations 3. Communication 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Communication with the public 3.3 Communication and the fight against crime 3.4 Communicating with the public about major incidents 3.5 Communication within the police service 3.6 Communication between the police service and other agencies 4. Study Skills 4.1 The study skills needed by probationer officers 4.2 Essay writing 4.3 Report writing 4.4 Referencing 4.5 Research 4.6 The use and abuse of statistics 4.7 Police-related journals Part 2: Supporting Police Work 5. Ethical Policing Values 5.1 Introductions 5.2 Ethics 5.3 Conflict between organisational and personal ethics 5.4 Impact of current changes upon UK police ethics and values 5.5 Applying police ethics 5.6 Human Rights Act 1998 and the police service 6. Race, Diversity and Equal Opportunities 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The complexity and diversity of communities 6.3 Prejudice 6.4 Discrimination 6.5 Anti-discrimination law 6.6 Institutional racism 6.7 Identifying a racist or homophobic incident 6.8 Conclusion 7. The Basic Command Unit 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The purpose of the BCU 7.3 Structure 7.4 Uniformed police staff 7.5 Frontline services 7.6 Support services 7.7 Response policing 7.8 Community policing teams 7.9 Neighbourhood policing 7.10 Community consultation 7.11 Police staff 7.12 Other police support services 7.13 Criminal Investigation Department 7.14 Public protection 7.15 Criminal justice 7.16 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships 7.17 National Intelligence Model 7.18 Finance 7.19 Performance measurement 7.20 The National Policing Improvement Agency 7.21 Conclusion 8. Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships 8.1 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships 8.2 Consultation 8.3 Developing a crime-reduction strategy 8.4 What exactly do we mean by crime and disorder reduction? 8.5 The opportunity to commit crime and disorder 8.6 The motivated offender 8.7 Repeat victimisation 8.8 The Problem Analysis Triangle 8.9 Neighbourhood policing teams 8.10 The extended policing family 8.11 Conclusion 9. Forensic Support in Law Enforcement 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Range of scientific and technical support available to the police service 9.3 Scientific evidence 9.4 Police officers as gatherers and preservers of forensic evidence 9.5 Police science and technology strategy 9.6 Crime analysis 9.7 Use of HOLMES in major investigations 9.8 Cyber crime 9.9 The future Part 3: Practical Police Work 10. Criminal Investigations 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Why should the police investigate professionally? 10.3 What is an investigation? 10.4 The role of the criminal investigator 10.5 What legislation covers criminal investigations? 10.6 The Professionalising Investigation Programme (PIP) 10.7 The Serious Organised Crime Agency 10.8 Reactive and proactive criminal investigation 10.9 Covert investigations 10.10 The National Intelligence Model 10.11 Features of crimes 10.12 Material 10.13 The golden hour and the early stages 10.14 Victims and witnesses 10.15 Interviewing witnesses 10.16 Investigative knowledge 11. Drug and Alcohol Related Crime 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Drugs and drug crime 11.3 Legislation and drugs 11.4 Policing drug-related crime 11.5 Analysis of drugs: how do we know what drug it is? 11.6 Basic facts about drinking and its effects 11.7 Legislation related to alcohol 11.8 Drink and crime 11.9 Government strategy 11.10 Drinking and driving 12. Anti-Social Behaviour 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The impact of anti-social behaviour 12.3 Tackling anti-social behaviour 12.4 Problems of defining anti-social behaviour 12.5 Officially defining anti-social behaviour 12.6 Local definitions of anti-social behaviour 12.7 Why do we have anti-social behaviour? 12.8 What can be done to deal with anti-social behaviour? 12.9 Prevention 12.10 Intervention 12.11 Acceptable Behaviour Contracts 12.12 Youth Offending Teams 12.13 Parenting contract 12.14 Referring a person for a parenting contract 12.15 Failure to comply 12.16 Different types of Parenting Order 12.17 Requirements of a Parenting Order 12.18 Breach of a Parenting Order 12.19 Anti-social Behaviour Orders 12.20 Who can apply for an ASBO? 12.21 Against whom can be an ASBO be made? 12.22 Who can make an Anti-social Behaviour Order? 12.23 What does and ASBO do? 12.24 Breach of an ASBO 12.25 Types of ASBO 12.26 Dispersal Orders 12.27 Other measures that can be used against anti-social behaviour 12.28 Victim and witness support 12.29 Hearsay evidence 12.30 Professional witnesses 12.31 Special Measures 12.32 Conclusion 13. Operational Response 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Safety and liability 13.3 Responding to unplanned events 13.4 Planned events and targeted operations 13.5 Communicating pre-planned operational information 13.6 Debriefing police operations 13.7 Conclusion 14. Arrests 14.1 What is an arrest? 14.2 Reasonable grounds to suspect 14.3 Powers of arrest 14.4 Human Rights Act 1998 14.5 Necessity test 14.6 What an arrested person must be told 14.7 Use of force when making an arrest 14.8 Searching arrested people 15. The Custody Suite 15.1 Police detention 15.2 Custody officers 15.3 Custody records 15.4 Risk assessments and deaths in police custody 15.5 Detainees' entitlements 15.6 Detention times 15.7 Methods of prosecution 15.8 Bail 15.9 Detention after charge 16. Roads Policing 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Road safety and roads policing strategy 16.3 Denying criminal use of the roads by enforcing the law 16.4 Reducing road casualties 16.5 Tackling the threat of terrorism 16.6 Reducing anti-social use of the roads 16.7 Enhancing public confidence and reassurance by patrolling the roads 16.8 Working in partnership 16.9 Human rights 17. Terrorism 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Government response to terrorism 17.3 The police officer's role in anti-terrorism 17.4 Protecting businesses against terrorism 17.5 Example of a terrorist group: Al Qaeda 17.6 Anti-terrorism: accountability and control 18. Future Directions 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Demands on the police 18.3 Police training
Colin Rogers is a Lecturer in Criminology in the Department of Health, Sport and Science at the University of Glamorgan. Prior to this, he was a Police Inspector with South Wales Police for 30 years. His areas of expertise include community safety partnerships, situational crime prevention, problem oriented partnerships and also police governance and accountability.
Rhobert Lewis is Associate Dean of the Department of Health, Sport and Science at the University of Glamorgan. His particular areas of expertise are police training, and forensic and police sciences.