Introduction to Polymers: 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introduction to Polymers

3rd Edition

By Robert J. Young, Peter A. Lovell

CRC Press

688 pages | 767 B/W Illus.

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Description

Thoroughly updated, Introduction to Polymers, Third Edition presents the science underpinning the synthesis, characterization and properties of polymers. The material has been completely reorganized and expanded to include important new topics and provide a coherent platform for teaching and learning the fundamental aspects of contemporary polymer science.

New to the Third Edition

Part I

This first part covers newer developments in polymer synthesis, including ‘living’ radical polymerization, catalytic chain transfer and free-radical ring-opening polymerization, along with strategies for the synthesis of conducting polymers, dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers and block copolymers. Polymerization mechanisms have been made more explicit by showing electron movements.

Part II

In this part, the authors have added new topics on diffusion, solution behaviour of polyelectrolytes and field-flow fractionation methods. They also greatly expand coverage of spectroscopy, including UV visible, Raman, infrared, NMR and mass spectroscopy. In addition, the Flory–Huggins theory for polymer solutions and their phase separation is treated more rigorously.

Part III

A completely new, major topic in this section is multicomponent polymer systems. The book also incorporates new material on macromolecular dynamics and reptation, liquid crystalline polymers and thermal analysis. Many of the diagrams and micrographs have been updated to more clearly highlight features of polymer morphology.

Part IV

The last part of the book contains major new sections on polymer composites, such as nanocomposites, and electrical properties of polymers. Other new topics include effects of chain entanglements, swelling of elastomers, polymer fibres, impact behaviour and ductile fracture. Coverage of rubber-toughening of brittle plastics has also been revised and expanded.

While this edition adds many new concepts, the philosophy of the book remains unchanged. Largely self-contained, the text fully derives most equations and cross-references topics between chapters where appropriate. Each chapter not only includes a list of further reading to help readers expand their knowledge of the subject but also provides problem sets to test understanding, particularly of numerical aspects.

Reviews

The second edition of this book is currently the recommended text for a second year undergraduate lecture course I deliver. In future I will recommend the third edition for both this course and a fourth year (Masters) lecture course on advanced polymer synthesis. Moreover, not only have Young and Lovell produced an excellent text (again) for supporting undergraduate teaching, this book is also a superb entry level text for postgraduates students with limited experience of polymers.

Chemistry World, 2012

Table of Contents

CONCEPTS, NOMENCLATURE AND SYNTHESIS OF POLYMERS

Concepts and Nomenclature

The Origins of Polymer Science and the Polymer Industry

Basic Definitions and Nomenclature

Molar Mass and Degree of Polymerization

Principles of Polymerization

Introduction

Classification of Polymerization Reactions

Monomer Functionality and Polymer Skeletal Structure

Functional Group Reactivity and Molecular Size: The Principle of Equal Reactivity

Step Polymerization

Introduction

Linear Step Polymerization

Non-Linear Step Polymerization

Radical Polymerization

Introduction to Radical Polymerization

The Chemistry of Conventional Free-Radical Polymerization

Kinetics of Conventional Free-Radical Polymerization

Free-Radical Polymerization Processes

Reversible-Deactivation (‘Living’) Radical Polymerizations

Non-Linear Radical Polymerizations

Ionic Polymerization

Introduction to Ionic Polymerization

Cationic Polymerization

Anionic Polymerization

Group-Transfer Polymerization

Stereochemistry and Coordination Polymerization

Introduction to Stereochemistry of Polymerization

Tacticity of Polymers

Geometric Isomerism in Polymers Prepared from Conjugated Dienes

Ziegler–Natta Coordination Polymerization

Metallocene Coordination Polymerization

Ring-Opening Polymerization

Introduction to Ring-Opening Polymerization

Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization

Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization

Free-Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization

Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

Specialized Methods of Polymer Synthesis

Introduction

Solid-State Topochemical Polymerization

Polymerization by Oxidative Coupling

Precursor Routes to Intractable Polymers

Supramolecular Polymerization (Polyassociation)

Copolymerization

Introduction

Step Copolymerization

Chain Copolymerization

Block Copolymer Synthesis

Graft Copolymer Synthesis

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS

Theoretical Description of Polymers in Solution

Introduction

Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

Chain Dimensions

Frictional Properties of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution

Number-Average Molar Mass

Introduction to Measurements of Number-Average Molar Mass

Membrane Osmometry

Vapour Pressure Osmometry

Ebulliometry and Cryoscopy

End-Group Analysis

Effects of Low Molar Mass Impurities upon Mn

Scattering Methods

Introduction

Static Light Scattering

Dynamic Light Scattering

Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering

Frictional Properties of Polymers in Solution

Introduction

Dilute Solution Viscometry

Ultracentrifugation

Molar Mass Distribution

Introduction

Fractionation

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Field-Flow Fractionation

Mass Spectroscopy

Chemical Composition and Molecular Microstructure

Introduction

Principles of Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet and Visible Light Absorption Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Mass Spectroscopy

PHASE STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY OF BULK POLYMERS

The Amorphous State

Introduction

The Glass Transition

Factors Controlling the Tg

Macromolecular Dynamics

The Crystalline State

Introduction

Determination of Crystal Structure

Polymer Single Crystals

Semi-Crystalline Polymers

Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Defects in Crystalline Polymers

Crystallization

Melting

Multicomponent Polymer Systems

Introduction

Polymer Blends

Block Copolymers

PROPERTIES OF BULK POLYMERS

Elastic Deformation

Introduction

Elastic Deformation

Elastic Deformation of Polymers

Viscoelasticity

Introduction

Viscoelastic Mechanical Models

Boltzmann Superposition Principle

Dynamic Mechanical Testing

Frequency Dependence of Viscoelastic Behaviour

Transitions and Polymer Structure

Time–Temperature Superposition

Effect of Entanglements

Non-Linear Viscoelasticity

Elastomers

Introduction

Thermodynamics of Elastomer Deformation

Statistical Theory of Elastomer Deformation

Stress–Strain Behaviour of Elastomers

Factors Affecting Mechanical Behaviour

Yield and Crazing

Introduction

Phenomenology of Yield

Yield Criteria

Deformation Mechanisms

Crazing

Fracture and Toughening

Introduction

Fundamentals of Fracture

Mechanics of Fracture

Fracture Phenomena

Toughened Polymers

Polymer Composites

Introduction to Composite Materials

Matrix Materials

Types of Reinforcement

Composite Composition

Particulate Reinforcement

Fibre Reinforcement

Nanocomposites

Electrical Properties

Introduction to Electrical Properties

Dielectric Properties

Conduction in Polymers

Polymer Electronics

Answers to Problems

Index

Problems and Further Reading appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Authors

Author

Robert J. Young is a professor of polymer science and technology at the University of Manchester and a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. He has published extensively and is listed on ISIHighlyCited.com. His research focuses on the relationships between structure and properties in polymers and composites.

Peter A. Lovell is a professor of polymer science at the University of Manchester. His research and publications focus on aspects of emulsion polymerization and related processes, especially in relation to understanding how to control the chemical structure, morphology and properties of the polymers produced.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013040
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Organic
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC055000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Textiles & Polymers