Introduction to Sensors for Electrical and Mechanical Engineers: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Sensors for Electrical and Mechanical Engineers

1st Edition

By Martin Novák

CRC Press

336 pages | 331 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780367518219
pub: 2020-09-15
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Description

Sensors are all around us. They are in phones, cars, planes, trains, robots, mils, lathes, packaging lines, chemical plants, power plants, etc. Modern technology could not exist without sensors. The sensors measure what we need to know and the control system then performs the desired actions. When an engineer builds any machine he or she needs to have basic understanding about sensors. Correct sensors need to be selected for the design right from the start. The designer needs to think about the ranges, required accuracy, sensor cost, wiring, correct installation and placement etc. Without the basic knowledge of sensors fundamental no machine can be built successfully today.

The objective of this book is to provide the basic knowledge to electrical and mechanical engineers, engineering students and hobbyist from the field of sensors to help them with the selection of “proper” sensors for their designs. No background knowledge in electrical engineering is required, all the necessary basics are provided. The book explains how a sensor works, in what ranges it can be used, with what accuracy etc. It also provides examples of industrial application for selected sensors.

The book covers all the major variables in mechanical engineering such as temperature, force, torque, pressure, humidity, position, speed, acceleration etc.

The approach is always as follows:

- Explain how the sensor works, what is the principle

- Explain in what ranges and with what accuracy it can work

- Describe its properties with charts, eventually equations

- Give examples of such sensors including application examples

Table of Contents

1 Measurement basics

1.1 General properties

1.2 Static properties

1.3 Dynamic properties

1.4 Uncertainty of measurement

2 Circuits for sensors

2.1 Voltage signal

2.2 Current signal

2.3 Bridge circuits

2.4 Difference amplifier

2.5 Instrumentation Amplifier

3 Temperature - contact

3.1 Resistive temperature detectors (RTD)

3.2 Thermistors

3.3 Circuits for RTD´s

3.4 Thermocouples

3.5 Temperature sensor placement

4 Temperature - non contact

4.1 Absorption in atmosphere and in materials

4.2 Materials for IR optics

4.3 Monochromatic pyrometers

4.4 Total radiation pyrometers

4.5 IR thermometers

4.6 Principles of correct use of IR thermometers

5 Force

5.1 Metallic strain gauges

5.2 Semiconductor strain gauges

5.3 Circuits for strain gauges

5.4 Strain gauge placement

5.5 Load cells and example applications

6 Torque

6.1 Torque dynamometer

6.2 Electronic torque sensors

7 Position

7.1 Resistive sensor

7.2 Inductive sensors

7.3 Capacitive sensors

7.4 Magnetic (Hall) sensors

7.5 Optical sensors

7.6 Incremental rotary encoders (IRC)

7.7 Absolute rotary encoders

7.8 Microwave position sensor (radar)

7.9 Interferometers

7.10 Proximity sensors

8 Speed and RPM

8.1 Electromagnetic - tachodynamo

8.2 Optoelectronic speed sensor

8.3 Inductive speed sensor

8.4 Hall speed sensor

8.5 Stroboscope

9 Acceleration

9.1 Piezoelectric acceleration sensor

9.2 Piezoresistive acceleration sensor

9.3 Acceleration sensors with measured displacement - general principle

9.4 Capacitive accelerometer

9.5 Optical accelerometer

10 Pressure

10.1 Calibration pressure gauges

10.2 Deformation manometers

10.3 Bolometric vacuum meter - PIRANI

10.4 Ionization pressure sensor

10.5 Placement of pressure sensors

11 Humidity

11.1 Dew-point hygrometer

11.2 Psychrometer

11.3 Hygrometer with dry electrolyte

12 Flow

12.1 Restriction flow meters

12.2 Rotameter

12.3 Turbine flowmeter

12.4 Wire anemometer

12.5 Ultrasonic flowmeter

12.6 Electromagnetic flowmeter

12.7 Coriolis flowmeter

13 Liquid level

13.1 Visual liquid level meter

13.2 Float

13.3 Hydro-static sensor

13.4 Bubbler

13.5 Electrical conductivity level sensor

13.6 Thermal conductivity level sensor

13.7 Radioisotope liquid level meter

13.8 Capacitive liquid level sensing

13.9 Ultrasonic liquid level meter

13.10 Radar liquid level meter

13.11 Vibrating level switches

14 Example labs

14.1 Temperature-contact - thermocouples

14.2 Temperature- non-contact - emissivity

14.3 Position - LVDT

14.3.1 Introduction

14.4 Position - proximity sensors - influence of material

14.5 Position - linear displacement sensors

References

Other recommended literature

Appendix

A Pt100, DIN/EN/IEC 60751, α = 0.00385

B Pt100, α = 0.00392

C Pt500

D Pt1000

E Ni120

F Cu10

G Thermocouple type J

H Thermocouple type K

I Thermocouple type T

J Thermocouple type E

K Thermocouple type R

L Thermocouple type S

M Material emissivity tables

Index

About the Author

Martin Novák presently works as a Professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC064000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Sensors