1st Edition

Introduction to Sensors

By John Vetelino, Aravind Reghu Copyright 2011
    210 Pages 150 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The need for new types of sensors is more critical than ever. This is due to the emergence of increasingly complex technologies, health and security concerns of a burgeoning world population, and the emergence of terrorist activities, among other factors. Depending on their application, the design, fabrication, testing, and use of sensors, all require various kinds of both technical and nontechnical expertise.

    With this in mind, Introduction to Sensors examines the theoretical foundations and practical applications of electrochemical, piezoelectric, fiber optic, thermal, and magnetic sensors and their use in the modern era. Incorporating information from sensor-based industries to review current developments in the field, this book:

    • Presents a complete sensor system that includes the preparation phase, the sensing element and platform, and appropriate electronics resulting in a digital readout
    • Discusses solid-state electronic sensors, such as the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor, the micromachined capacitive polymer, and the Schottky diode sensors
    • Uses the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice as an example to detail the basic theory associated with piezoelectricity
    • Explores the fundamental relationship between stress, strain, electric field, and electric displacement

    The magnetic sensors presented are used to determine measurands such as the magnetic field and semiconductor properties, including carrier concentration and mobility. Offering the human body and the automobile as examples of entities that rely on a multiplicity of sensors, the authors address the application of various types of sensors, as well as the theory and background information associated with their development and the materials used in their design. The coverage in this book reveals the underlying rationale for the application of different sensors while also defining the properties and characteristics of each.

    The Human Body as a Sensor System
    Sensors in an Automobile
    Classification of Sensors
    Example of a Gas Sensor: The Taguchi Sensor
    The Sensor as a Passive or Active Element
    The Sensor as Part of a Measurement System
    Sensor Properties
    Historical Development of Sensors
    Sensor System

    Electrochemical Sensors
    Conductimetric Sensors
    Semiconducting Metal Oxide Sensors
    Other Solid-State Electrochemical Gas Sensors
    Concluding Remarks

    Piezoelectric Sensors
    Classification of Piezoelectric Sensors
    Piezoelectric Materials as Intelligent or Smart Materials
    The Piezoelectric Effect
    The Properties of Nonpiezoelectric and Piezoelectric Materials
    Piezoelectric Stress/Pressure Sensor
    Piezoelectric Accelerometer
    Active Piezoelectric Sensors
    Bulk Acoustic Wave Sensor
    Bulk Acoustic Wave Sensor Response Measurement
    Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors

    Fiber Optic Sensors
    Light Leaking and Absorption in the Fiber Optic Link
    Fiber Link and Materials
    Communication Applications
    Fiber Optic Sensors

    Thermal Sensors
    Resistance Thermometers
    Theory of Metal-Based Thermometers
    Properties of Metal-Based Thermometers
    Theory of Semiconductor-Based Thermometers
    Thermistor Properties
    Concluding Remarks

    Magnetic Sensors
    Natural and Man-Made Magnetic Fields
    Materials Used in Magnetic Sensors
    Principles of Magnetic Sensors
    Solid-State Magnetic Sensors



    Vetelino, John; Reghu, Aravind