Introduction to Statistics for Biology: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Statistics for Biology

3rd Edition

By Trudy A. Watt, Robin H. McCleery, Tom Hart

Chapman and Hall/CRC

296 pages | 78 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781584886525
pub: 2007-05-17
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Description

Even though an understanding of experimental design and statistics is central to modern biology, undergraduate and graduate students studying biological subjects often lack confidence in their numerical abilities. Allaying the anxieties of students, Introduction to Statistics for Biology, Third Edition provides a painless introduction to the subject while demonstrating the importance of statistics in contemporary biological studies.

New to the Third Edition

  • More detailed explanation of the ideas of elementary probability to simplify the rationale behind hypothesis testing, before moving on to simple tests

  • An emphasis on experimental design and data simulation prior to performing an experiment

  • A general template for carrying out statistical tests from hypothesis to interpretation

  • Worked examples and updated Minitab analyses and graphics

  • A CD-ROM that contains a free trial version of Minitab

    Using Minitab throughout to present practical examples, the authors emphasize the interpretation of computer output. With its nontechnical approach and practical advice, this student-friendly introductory text lays the foundation for the advanced study of statistical analysis.

  • Reviews

    "With its non-technical approach and practical advice, this accessible to students introductory text lays the foundation for more advanced study of statistical analysis and biometry. I strongly recommend this excellent text to all undergraduate students in the biological sciences."

    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society

    Table of Contents

    PREFACE

    HOW LONG IS A WORM?

    Introduction

    Sampling a Population

    The Normal Distribution

    Probability

    Continuous Measurements-Worms Again

    Expressing Variability

    CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

    The Importance of Confidence Intervals

    Calculating Confidence Intervals

    Another Way of Looking At It

    Your First Statistical Test

    One- and Two-Tailed Tests

    The Other Side of the Coin-Type II Errors

    Recap-Hypothesis Testing

    A Complication

    Testing Fish with t

    Minitab Does a One-Sample t-Test

    95% CI for Worms

    Anatomy of Test Statistics

    COMPARING THINGS: TWO SAMPLE TESTS

    A Simple Case

    Matched-Pairs t-Test

    Another Example-Testing Twin Sheep

    Independent Samples: Comparing Two Populations

    Calculation of Independent Samples t-Test

    One- and Two-Tailed Tests-A Reminder

    Minitab Carries Out a Two-Sample t-Test

    Pooling the Variances?

    PLANNING AN EXPERIMENT

    Principles of Sampling

    Principles of Experimental Design

    Recording Data and Simulating an Experiment

    Simulating Your Experiment

    PARTITIONING VARIATION AND CONSTRUCTING A MODEL

    It's Simple

    … But Not That Simple

    The Example: Field Margins in Conservation

    The Idea of a Statistical Model

    Laying Out the Experiment

    Sources of Variation: Random Variation

    The Model

    ANALYZING YOUR RESULTS: IS THERE ANYTHING THERE?

    Is Spider Abundance Affected by Treatment?

    Why Not Use Multiple t-Tests?

    ANOVA for a Wholly Randomized Design

    Comparing the Sources of Variation

    The Two Extremes of Explanation: All or Nothing

    The ANOVA Table

    Testing Our Hypothesis

    Including Blocks: Randomized Complete Block Designs

    Analyzing the Spider Data Set in Minitab

    The Assumptions behind ANOVA and How to Test Them

    Another Use for the F-Test: Testing Homogeneity of Variance

    INTERPRETING YOUR ANALYSIS: FROM HYPOTHESIS TESTING TO BIOLOGICAL MEANING

    Treatment Means and Confidence Intervals

    Difference between Two Treatment Means

    Getting More Out of an Experiment: Factorial Designs and Interactions

    Getting More Out of the Analysis: Using the Factorial Design to Ask More Relevant Questions

    Interactions

    Adding Blocking to the Factorial Analysis

    How to Interpret Interaction Plots: The Plant Hormone Experiment

    Loss of Data and Unbalanced Experiments

    Limitations of ANOVA and the General Linear Model (GLM)

    RELATING ONE VARIABLE TO ANOTHER

    Correlation

    Calculating the Correlation Coefficient, and a New Idea: Covariance

    Regression

    Linear Regression

    The Model

    Interpreting Hypothesis Tests in Regression

    A Further Example of Linear Regression

    Assumptions

    The Importance of Plotting Observations

    Confidence Intervals

    Standard Error of Prediction (Prediction Interval)

    Caution in the Interpretation of Regression and Correlation

    CATEGORICAL DATA

    The Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test

    A More Interesting Example: Testing Genetic Models

    Contingency Analysis: Chi-Squared Test of Proportions

    A Further Example of a Chi-Squared Contingency Test

    Beyond Two-Dimensional Tables: The Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square

    NONPARAMETRIC TESTS

    Introduction

    Basic Ideas

    A Taxonomy of Tests

    Single-Sample Tests

    Matched-Pairs Tests

    Independent Samples

    Two Quantitative Variables: Spearman's Rank Correlation

    Why Bother with Parametric Tests?

    MANAGING YOUR PROJECT

    Choosing a Topic and a Supervisor

    Common Mistakes

    General Principles of Experimental Design and Execution

    Analyzing Your Data and Writing the Report

    Structure

    The First Draft

    Illustrating Results

    What It Is All About: Getting Through Your Project

    APPENDIX A: AN INTRODUCTION TO MINITAB

    Conventions Used in This Book

    Starting Up

    Help

    Data Entry

    Looking at the Worms Data

    Updating Graphs

    Stacking and Unstacking-A Useful Trick

    Looking Up Probabilities

    Report Writer

    The Minitab Command Line

    Saving Your Session

    APPENDIX B: STATISTICAL POWER AND SAMPLE SIZE

    APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TABLES

    APPENDIX D: REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

    APPENDIX E: STATISTICAL TESTS

    INDEX

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    MAT029000
    MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General