1st Edition

Introduction to Sustainable Energy Transformation




  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after November 26, 2021
ISBN 9780367470807
November 26, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
392 Pages 93 B/W Illustrations

USD $99.95

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Book Description

This textbook provides an accessible introduction to various energy transformation technologies and their influences on the environment. Here the energy transformation is understood as any physical process induced by humans, in which energy is intentionally transformed from one form to another.

This book provides an accessible introduction to the subject: covering the theory, principles of design, operation, and efficiency of the systems in addition to discerning concepts such as energy, entropy, exergy, efficiency, and sustainability.

It is not assumed that readers have any previous exposure to such concepts as laws of thermodynamics, entropy, exergy, fluid mechanics or heat transfer, and is therefore an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate students.

Key features:

  • Represents a complete source of information on sustainable energy transformation systems and their externalities.
  • Includes all existing and major emerging technologies in the field.
  • Chapters include numerous examples and problems for further learning opportunities.

Table of Contents

SECTION I Energy Forms and Resources


Fundamental Concepts
1.1 Units and Notation
1.1.1 Units
1.1.2 Notation
1.1.3 Atomic and nuclear nomenclature
1.2 Structure of Matter
1.2.1 Matter
1.2.2 The Atom 
1.2.3 Sources of Nuclear and Atomic Information 
1.3 Energy in Matter
1.3.1 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy
1.3.2 Internal Energy
1.3.3 Energy in Chemical Reactions
1.3.4 Energy in Nuclear Reactions Problems


Energy Forms, Reserves, Supply, and Consumption
2.1 Energy Forms
2.1.1 Primary and Secondary Energy 
2.1.2 Energy Carrier
2.1.3 Final Energy
2.1.4 Useful Energy 
2.1.5 Electricity
2.1.6 Heat
2.2 Reserves of Energy-Containing Minerals
2.2.1 Fossil Fuels 
2.2.2 Uranium 
2.2.3 Other Minerals
2.3 Energy Supply
2.3.1 Crude Oil
2.3.2 Coal
2.3.3 Natural Gas 
2.3.4 Biofuels and Waste 
2.3.5 Nuclear
2.3.6 Hydro 
2.3.7 Wind
2.3.8 Solar 
2.4 Power Sector 
2.5 Energy Consumption 
2.5.1 Aluminium Production 
2.5.2 Cement Production
2.5.3 Iron and Steel 
2.5.4 Pulp and Paper 
2.5.5 Chemicals
2.5.6 Energy Services 
2.5.7 Energy Efficiency and Environment Protection

Elements of Sustainability
3.1 Sustainability Goals
3.2 Environment
3.2.1 Atmosphere
3.2.2 Biosphere 
3.2.3 Hydrosphere
3.3.1 Role of Economy in Sustainability 
3.3.2 Ways to Promote Environmental Protection 
3.3.3 Climate Change


Mechanical and Electromagnetic Energy
4.1 Forces and Fields 
4.1.1 A Force
4.1.2 A Field 
4.2 Mechanical Energy 
4.2.1 Kinetic Energy 
4.2.2 Potential Energy
4.2.3 Work and Power
4.2.4 Linear and Angular Momentum
4.2.5 Mechanical Energy Losses 
4.2.6 Mechanical Energy Storage 
4.3 Electromagnetic Energy
4.3.1 Electrostatics 
4.3.2 Electric Current
4.3.3 Magnetism
4.3.4 Induction
4.3.5 Electrical Devices 
4.3.6 Electromagnetic Energy Losses
4.3.7 Electromagnetic Energy Storage

Biological and Chemical Energy
5.1 Photosynthesis 
5.1.1 Mechanisms of Photosynthesis 
5.1.2 Photosynthesis Efficiency 
5.2 Food Energy
5.2.1 Food Production
5.2.2 Fertilizers
5.3 Bioenergy
5.3.1 Biomass
5.3.2 Biogas
5.3.3 Ethanol 
5.3.4 Biodiesel 
5.4 Fossil Fuels
5.4.1 Coal
5.4.2 Petroleum
5.4.3 Natural Gas 
5.5 Combustion
5.5.1 Combustion of Gasoline 
5.5.2 Combustion of Ethanol 
5.5.3 Combustion of Coal
5.5.4 Combustion of Hydrogen

Nuclear Energy
6.1 Binding Energy of a Nucleus
6.2 Energy Transformation in Stars 
6.3 Characteristics of the Nuclear Fission 
6.3.1 Fission Products
6.3.2 Neutron Emission
6.3.3 Energy Released in Fission Reactions 
6.4 Nuclear Fusion
6.5 Radioactive Decay 

Thermal Energy
7.1 Introductory Definitions
7.1.1 Thermodynamic Control Systems
7.1.2 State Parameters
7.1.3 Thermodynamic Equilibrium
7.1.4 Thermodynamic Diagrams
7.1.5 Thermodynamic Processes
7.1.6 Thermodynamic Cycles 
7.2 The Laws of Thermodynamics 
7.2.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 
7.2.2 First Law of Thermodynamics
7.2.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 
7.3 Equation of State
7.3.1 The Ideal Gas Law
7.3.2 Ideal Gas Mixtures
7.3.3 Van der Waals Equation of State
7.3.4 Principle of Corresponding States 
7.3.5 Phase Change
7.4 Thermodynamic Processes in Heat Engines
7.4.1 Isothermal Process 
7.4.2 Isochoric Process 
7.4.3 Isobaric Process 
7.4.4 Adiabatic Process
7.4.5 Polytropic Process
7.5 Thermodynamic Cycles 
7.5.1 Carnot Cycle 
7.5.2 Rankine Cycle
7.5.3 Brayton Cycle 
7.5.4 Stirling Cycle 
7.5.5 Kalina Cycle
7.5.6 Combined Cycle
7.6 Entropy Balance
7.7 Principle of Maximum Work 
7.8 Exergy Balance 
7.8.1 Mechanical and Electrical Exergy 
7.8.2 Thermal Exergy
7.8.3 Chemical Exergy
7.8.4 Total Exergy of Substance 
7.8.5 Exergy of Heat Reservoirs
7.8.6 Exergy Losses 

Fluid Flow in Energy Systems
8.1 Generalized Conservation Law
8.1.1 General Integral Conservation Equation
8.1.2 Stationary Control Volume 
8.1.3 Moving Control Volume 
8.1.4 Material Volume
8.1.5 Local Differential Formulation
8.2 Closure Relationships
8.2.1 Total Stress Tensor 
8.2.2 Heat Flux
8.2.3 Entropy Generation
8.3 Space-Averaged Flow in a Tube 
8.3.1 Averaged Mass Conservation Equation 
8.3.2 Averaged Momentum Conservation Equation 
8.4 Internal Flows
8.4.1 Average Flow Parameters 
8.4.2 Wall Shear Stress and Friction Pressure Loss
8.4.3 Macroscopic Energy Balance for Adiabatic Channel
8.4.4 Local Pressure Losses
8.5 External Flows 
8.6 Multiphase Flows
8.6.1 Notation and Nomenclature 
8.6.2 Flow Patterns
8.6.3 Homogeneous Equilibrium Model
8.6.4 Homogeneous Relaxation Model
8.6.5 Separated Flow Model 
8.6.6 Drift Flux Model
8.6.7 Two-Fluid Model 


Heat Transfer in Energy Systems 
9.1 Governing Equations 
9.2 Conduction
9.2.1 Steady-State Heat Conduction 
9.2.2 Transient Heat Conduction
9.3 Convection 
9.3.1 Forced Convection 
9.3.2 Natural Convection 
9.4 Boiling 
9.4.1 Nucleation and Ebullition Cycle
9.4.2 Pool Boiling 
9.4.4 Onset of Nucleate Boiling
9.4.5 Subcooled Boiling
9.4.6 Saturated Boiling 
9.5 Boiling Crisis 
9.5.1 Pool Boiling Crisis
9.5.2 Flow Boiling Crisis
9.6 Post-Boiling-Crisis Heat Transfer
9.7 Radiation


SECTION II Energy Transformation Systems

Efficiency of Energy Transformation
10.1 Power Generation Technologies 
10.2 Energy Efficiency
10.2.1 First-Law Efficiency
10.2.2 Second-Law Efficiency 
10.3 Energy Conservation and Storage


Thermal Power 
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Condensing Power
11.2.1 Schematic of a Basic System 
11.2.2 Basic System Efficiency
11.2.3 Efficiency Improvements 
11.2.4 System Modelling 
11.3 Stationary Gas Turbines
11.4 Combined Cycle Power 
11.5 Cogeneration and Trigeneration 

Moving Water Energy
12.1 Hydropower ................................................................................................209
12.1.1 Hydropower Potential ....................................................................210
12.1.2 Types of Water Turbines ................................................................210
12.1.3 Types of Hydropower Plants..........................................................211
12.1.4 Analysis of Water Turbine Efficiency............................................214
12.2 Marine Current Power ................................................................................216
12.3 Wave Power ................................................................................................216
12.4 Tidal Power.................................................................................................217

Wind Energy
13.1 Energy of Moving Air
13.2 Wind Power Machines.
13.2.1 Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines
13.2.2 Darrieus turbines
13.2.3 Savonius Turbines 
13.3 Wind Energy Resources
13.4 Wind Characteristics
13.4.1 Temporal Variability of Wind 
13.4.2 Global Circulation in Atmosphere
13.4.3 Synoptic Scale Winds 
13.4.4 Diurnal Wind Changes
13.4.5 Modelling Wind Speed Variation
13.4.6 Wind Rose - Wind Direction and Intensity
13.5 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
13.5.1 Maximum Power of a Wind Turbine 
13.5.2 Wind Turbine Efficiency 
13.6 Environmental Effects of Wind Power 
13.6.1 Noise
13.6.2 Shadow Flicker 
13.6.3 Visual Impact
13.6.4 Bird Collisions 
13.6.5 Site Planning

Solar Energy 
14.1 Solar Radiation on Earth
14.1.1 Energy of the Sunlight 
14.1.2 Sun Position 
14.1.3 Components of Solar Radiation 
14.1.4 Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces
14.2 Solar Thermal Energy
14.2.1 Absorption of Radiation
14.2.2 Collectors 
14.2.3 Concentrators
14.3 Photovoltaic Solar Cells
14.3.1 Theory
14.3.2 Silicon Solar Cells 
14.3.3 Advanced Solar Cells
14.3.4 Photovoltaic Modules 

Nuclear Energy
15.1 Introduction
15.1.1 Neutron Reactions
15.1.2 Neutron Flux 
15.1.3 The Neutron Cycle in Thermal Reactor
15.2 Reactor Analysis and Design
15.2.1 Steady-State Reactor Physics
15.2.2 Thermal-Hydraulic Design 
15.3 Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics
15.4 Fuel Composition Changes
15.4.1 Fuel Conversion and Breeding
15.4.2 Fission Product Poisoning 
15.5 Reactor Types 
15.5.1 Currently Operable Reactors
15.5.2 Advanced Reactors 
15.6 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
15.7 Nuclear Power Safety 
15.8 Fusion Reactors and Other Technologies 
15.8.1 Potential Fusion Reactions
15.8.2 Fusion Power Density 
15.8.3 Plasma Confinement Methods 
15.8.4 Fusion Performance Criteria 
15.8.5 ITER
15.8.6 Other Technologies 

SECTION III External Effects


Energy and Environment 
16.1 Climate
16.2 Greenhouse effect 
16.3 Earth energy imbalance 
16.4 CO2 Concentration 
16.5 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
16.6 Air Pollution 
16.7 Water Use and Contamination 
16.8 Land Use
16.9 Mineral Use 


Risks, Safety, and Cost Analysis 
17.1 Risk Analysis 
17.1.1 Risk of Energy Systems 
17.1.2 Probabilistic Risk Assessment 
17.2 Hazards in Energy Systems 
17.2.1 Solar Power
17.2.2 Wind Power
17.2.3 Hydropower 
17.2.4 Combustion-based Thermal Power
17.2.5 Geothermal Power 
17.2.6 Nuclear Power
17.3 Cost Analysis 
17.3.1 Calculation Methods 
17.3.2 Levelized Cost of Energy

Appendix A Notation 
Appendix B Constants 
Appendix C Data
Appendix D Mathematical Tools 

Appendix E Units 

References
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Henryk Anglart is a professor of Nuclear Engineering at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and at the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Warsaw, Poland. He received his MSc from WUT and his PhD from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. After his eighteen-year career as a research and development engineer at Westinghouse in Sweden, he accepted a tenure position at KTH, where he has supervised many PhD students and post-doctoral fellows, and has taught several courses in nuclear engineering. In addition to research and teaching, prof. Henryk Anglart was serving for a long time as head of Reactor Technology Division and Deputy Director of the Physics Department. He is currently a Director of Nuclear Technology Center at KTH. Prof. Henryk Anglart authored and co-authored over 200 journal, conference and other scientific publications. He is also an author of three textbooks used in teaching of nuclear engineering courses at WUT and KTH.