Introductory Mass Spectrometry: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introductory Mass Spectrometry

2nd Edition

By Stephen Shrader

CRC Press

189 pages | 344 B/W Illus.

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Mass spectrometry has played an integral part in the study of organic molecular structures for more than 50 years, offering significant information from small amounts of sample. The mass spectrum produced by electron impact ionization presents a pattern of peaks that can often give definitive structural information about an unknown compound. Introductory Mass Spectrometry, Second Edition guides readers in the understanding and recognition of those patterns, discussing mass spectra in terms that are familiar to chemists. It provides a basis for chemists to interpret mass spectra to solve particular structural problems.

The Second Edition has been updated with modern techniques and data handling. Beginning with an introduction to the principles and instrumentation, it then sequentially explains the processes that occur in the mass spectrometer following ionization. The book is unique in the large number of mass spectra presented and provides examples of mass spectra from a wide variety of organic chemicals, concentrating on the relationships between fragmentation patterns, common chemical reactions, and chemical structures. The book also discusses mass spectra obtained with softer ionization techniques, which provide definitive information regarding molecular weights.

The text describes mass spectra produced by electron ionization, discussing how the spectral peak pattern relates to molecular structure. It details the use of high-resolution and accurate mass measurement to determine elemental composition of ions in order to identify unknown substances. The book also introduces some of the recent techniques that can be employed to extend the usefulness of mass spectrometry to high molecular weight substances and more polar substances. It includes examples and problems representing a cross section of organic chemistry to help readers integrate the principles presented.

Table of Contents


What is Mass?


The Mass Spectrometer

sample Introduction


Mass Separation


Ion Detection

Data Presentation


Ion Formation

Types of Ions

Molecular Ion

Fragment Ion

Multiply Charged Ion

Molecular Ions

Isotope Peaks

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Multiply Charged Ions

Neutral Fragments

Basic Mass Spectral Reactions


Simple cleavage

Multicenter fragmentations

Expulsion of Stable Neutral Fragments

Interpreting EI Mass Spectra



Mass Calibration

Elemental Compositions




Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry



Low Energy Ionization

Low Electron Energy

Field Ionization

Fast Atom Bombardment


Chemical Ionization

Electrospray Ionization

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

Direct Analysis in Real Time

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry



Appendix I Answers to Problems


About the Author

Stephen Shrader, founder of Shrader Analytical and Consulting Laboratories, was among the early third-generation mass spectroscopists, starting in 1963. He is an internationally recognized expert in the use of mass spectrometry for structural elucidation and resolution of chemical problems in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, environmental, and polymer fields. His work has included periods in academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and a long stint as a consultant to the overall chemical industry. Throughout his 40-plus-year career, he has shared his experiences and knowledge of mass spectrometry via numerous seminars and classes. He has also been instrumental in developing a set of software tools called TSS Unity for displaying, printing, and evaluating mass spectral data for the purpose of solving chemical problems.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Organic
SCIENCE / Research & Methodology