444 Pages 155 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    444 Pages 155 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Since the turn of the twenty-first century, applications of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) have diversified, expanding their utility in the military and security spheres and entering the realms of clinical practice and pharmaceutical exploration. Updated and expanded, the third edition of Ion Mobility Spectrometry begins with a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental theory and practice of IMS. Divided into four sections—Overview, Technology, Fundamentals, and Applications—the authors treat innovations and advances in all aspects of IMS in a fresh, thorough, and revised format.


    • Introduces the definitions, theory, and practice of IMS and summarizes its history from the beginnings of the study of ions to present commercial and scholarly activities
    • Presents the technology of IMS from a measurement perspective—covering inlet through ion formation, ion injection, electric fields, drift tube structures, and detectors
    • Covers the end results of measurement, the mobility spectrum, and the transformative trend of ion mobility: mass spectrometry
    • Discusses the influence on the experimental parameters on the mobility of ions

    Mobility-based methods are no longer restricted to volatile substances and indeed the many benefits of this technology—simplicity, convenience, and the low cost of technology—have become recognized as meritorious in a wide range of uses. This is also true for the advantages of measurements—high speed, distinctive spectral features, and operation in ambient pressure with thermalized ions. Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Third Edition serves specialists in the field of IMS who are interested in the potential of recent developments and researchers, engineers, and students who want a comprehensive overview of this technology.

    Introduction to Ion Mobility Spectrometry
    Methods of Ion Mobility Spectrometry
    Emerging Patterns in the Development of Ion Mobility Methods Summary Comments

    History of Ion Mobility Spectrometry
    The Formative Years of Discovery (1895 to 1960)
    Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Chemical Measurements (1960 to 1990)
    Mobility Methods beyond Military and Security Venues (1990 to 2000)
    Commercial Production of Mobility-Based Analyzers (2000 to Present)
    The Society for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Journal

    Sample Introduction Methods
    Vapor Samples
    Semi-volatile Samples
    Aqueous Samples
    Solid Samples

    Ion Sources
    Radioactivity: Nickel, Americium, and Tritium
    Corona Discharges
    Photo-ionization: Discharge Lamps and Lasers
    Electrospray Ionization and Its Derivatives
    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization
    Surface Ionization Sources
    Plasma-Based Ion Sources
    Glow Discharge Ion Source
    Other Ion Sources

    Ion Injection and Pulsed Sources
    Operation and Structures of Ion Shutters
    Models and Modes of Operation
    Ion Injection to Drift Regions without Wire-Based Ion Shutters
    Mobility Methods with Continuous Flow of Ions into the Drift Region
    Summary and Conclusions

    Drift Tubes in Ion Mobility Spectrometry
    Traditional Drift Tubes with Stacked-Ring Designs
    High Field Asymmetric Drift Tubes
    Aspirator Drift Tubes
    Traveling Wave Drift Tubes
    Tandem Mobility Spectrometers
    Other Drift Tube Designs
    Selection of Materials
    Summary and Conclusions

    Ion Detectors
    Ambient Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions
    Low-Pressure Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions

    The Ion Mobility Spectrum
    Mobility, Electric Field, and Pressure
    Ion Mobility Spectra
    IMS as a Separation Device
    Quantitative Aspects to Response

    Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
    Combining Mobility with Mass
    Low-Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry
    Aspiration Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry
    Ion Mobility MS and the Future

    Ion Characterization and Separation: Mobility of Gas Phase Ions in Electric Fields
    Motion of Slow Ions in Gases
    Models for Ion-Neutral Interactions
    Linear Ion Mobility Spectrometers: Models and Experimental Evidence
    Differential Mobility Spectrometer and the Dependence of Ion Mobility on the Electric Field Strength
    Traveling Wave IMS

    Control and Effects of Experimental Parameters
    Chemical Composition of the Support Gas Atmosphere
    Moisture and Temperature of the Supporting Gas Atmosphere
    Effects of Pressure
    Effects of Field Strength and Ion Residence Time
    Effects of Analyte Concentration

    Detection of Explosives by IMS
    General Comments on Detection of Explosives
    The Chemistry Underlying Detection of Explosives by IMS
    Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques for Detection of Explosives
    Measurement with Handheld Devices, Portable Instruments, and Portals
    Research and Operational Experience
    Walk-Through Portals and Systems for Luggage Screening
    Homemade and Alternate Explosives
    Standards for Calibration of Explosive Detectors
    Database for Explosives

    Chemical Weapons
    Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents
    The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Chemical Weapons
    Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques
    Research, Operational Experience, and Historical Perspective of Instrumentation
    State-of-the-Art Commercial Instruments, Standards, and Calibration

    Drugs of Abuse
    Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Drugs
    The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Drugs
    Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques
    Research, Operational Experience, and Instrumentation
    Standards and Calibration
    Database for Drugs

    Compound Identification
    Formulation Validation
    Cleaning Validation
    Reaction Monitoring
    Monitoring Biological Samples
    Summary and Conclusion

    Industrial Applications
    Industrial Processes
    Industrial Feedstock or Products
    Food Production

    Environmental Monitoring
    Airborne Vapors

    Biological and Medical Applications of IMS
    Introduction and General Comments on Biological and Medical Applications
    Medical Diagnostics Using IMS
    Food Freshness, Molds, and Odor Detection
    Macromolecules: Biomolecules and Biopolymers
    Detection and Determination of Bacteria
    Other Biological Applications

    Current Assessments and Future Developments in Ion Mobility Spectrometry
    State of the Science and Technology of IMS
    Next Generation in Ion Mobility Methods
    Directions for IMS
    Final Thoughts


    G.A. Eiceman is a professor at New Mexico University in Las Cruces.

    Z. Karpas is an associate at the Nuclear Research Center in Beer-Shev, Israel.

    Herbert H. Hill is a professor at Washington State University in Pullman.

    "… an excellent book and essential for every researcher and engineer working in the field of ion mobility. The authors, who are leading experts in IMS technology, provide an excellent overview of the current state of science and technology related to IMS and the most recent developments in this field. … well written and easily understandable, with a well-balanced mix of practice-oriented information and theoretical background knowledge."
    —Thomas Mayer, Department of Monitoring and Exploration Technologies, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany, from International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry, December 2014

    Praise for the Previous Edition

    "... The second edition of this book provides a timely update to the fundamental theory, advancements in instrumentation, and the development of new applications of IMS.... The book accomplishes the objectives outlined by the authors... The CD [is] a useful and practical addition to this book... Overall, this book should be useful to experts in IMS research as well as those new to the technology. As a practical book, it offers a well-balanced combination of theory and application... I highly recommend it to anyone interested in IMS."
    —Robert G. Ewing, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, in JACS, Vol. 128, 2006