1st Edition

Ion-Pair Chromatography and Related Techniques

ISBN 9781138112063
Published June 13, 2017 by CRC Press
215 Pages 24 B/W Illustrations

USD $84.95

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Book Description

Ion-Pair Chromatography (IPC) is a rapidly evolving method for difficult analyses of organic and inorganic ions and ionogenic, neutral, and zwitterionic compounds. The possibilities for this technology continue to grow as novel ion-pair reagents and strategies are introduced at an accelerated level. Compensating for a dearth in the literature, Ion-Pair Chromatography and Related Techniques details the basics and the evolution of this established and easily tunable technique and explains its influence on similar methods.

Theoretical modeling to application

Providing a thorough exploration of the multiplicity of interactions involved in an IPC system, this book emphasizes the progress from theoretical modeling to application. It explores the practical potential of IPC in the life science, medicine, pharmacology, forensic, food, and environmental sectors. It examines the upgrade of column technology and instrumentation to improve data quality and to increase sample throughput. The book also compares IPC to other instrumental methods of analysis and discusses the rising importance of the ion-pair concept in different analytical techniques.

Future endeavors

IPC has the potential to have lasting impact in the field of chromatography. Distilling the knowledge gained from preeminent research, this volume is a critical resource that is destined to stimulate future endeavors by separation scientists working in the area of high performance liquid chromatography.

Table of Contents


Electrolyte Solutions and Historical Concept of Ion-Pairing

Phenomenological Treatment

Ion–Solvent Interactions

Ion–Ion Aspecific Interactions

Interactions of Ions with Non-Electrolytes

Critical Review of History of Theoretical Treatments of Ion-Pairing

Thermodynamic Properties of Ion-Pairs

Techniques for Studying Ion Pairing

Retention Modeling as Function of Mobile Phase Composition

Theoretical Models of Ion-Pair Chromatography (IPC)

Empirical Models of IPC

Modeling of Retention as a Function of Analyte Nature

Stationary Phases

Reversed Phase IPC

Normal Phase IPC and Other Stationary Phases

Developments in Column Technology and Fast IPC

Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography (U-HPLC)

Monolithic Columns

Ion-Pair Reagents

Traditional IPRs

Volatile IPRs

Chaotropic Salts

Ionic Liquid-Based IPRs

Unusual IPRs

IPR Counter Ions

Organic Modifiers

Organic Modifier Concentration in Eluent

Nature of Organic Modifier

Gradient Elution

Role of Eluent pH in IPC

IPC versus RP-HPLC

pH-Dependent Silanol Ionization


Influence of Temperature on Column Efficiency

Influence of Temperature on Selectivity under RP-HPLC and IPC Conditions

Special IPC Modes and Variations

Mixture of Different IPRs in Mobile Phase

Permanently Coated Columns

IPRs Added Only to Sample Solution and Ghost Peaks

Special Additives in Mobile Phase

Modification of Eluent Ionic Strength at Constant IPR Concentration

Detection and Combination

UV-Vis Detectors

Fluorescence Detectors

Electrical Conductivity Detectors

Electrochemical Detectors

Evaporative Light Scattering Detectors

Unusual Detectors

Hyphenated Techniques

Examples of Applications

Inorganic and Organometallic Species

Food Analysis

Life Science and Medicine

Pharmaceutical, Toxicological and Clinical Analysis

Environmental Analysis

Enantiomeric Separations

IPC versus Competitive Techniques

Ion-Pairing in Different Analytical Techniques

Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) and Related Techniques

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) and Other Techniques

UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

Extraction and Sample Preparation

Non-Separative Applications of IPC

Conclusions and Future Research Needs



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Teresa Cecchi earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Camerino University in Italy in 1997. She focused on environmental chemistry at Institute Fresenius Gruppe, Germany and served as a consultant to food chemistry laboratories. After working as a researcher at Camerino University on the SUPREME project titled "Pigmentation in South American Camelids," she concentrated on ion pairing chromatography; her major research interests encompass many aspects of this technique including retention modeling, unusual analytes such as zwitterions, and application of this technique to non-separative functions. Dr. Cecchi’s career and studies also span the fields of food packaging chemistry, natural dyes, electrochemistry, and the antioxidant activities of nutraceuticals. She acted as the organizer of a research group at Istituto Tecnico Industriale Statale (It is) Montani in Italy and taught as a contract professor at La Sapienza University in Rome. She is currently a contract professor on the Faculty of Science and Technology at Camerino University, teaching master’s level courses in chemistry and advanced chemical methodologies and a professor of analytical chemistry at ITIS Montani. Dr. Cecchi is also involved in "Teaching of Experimental Sciences" and "Scientific Master Degrees," two projects whose purposes are, respectively, to improve the methodologies of teaching physical sciences, and to encourage students to study scientific subjects. She is the author of over 50 research articles, reviews, congress lectures, and other communications and was the corresponding author of an article that received an award from the Italian Research Evaluation Panel.


"… provides a broad coverage of the subject of IPC with regard to theoretical features, the parameters influencing the results and the applications. The reader will find a discussion of all aspects of IPC, beginning with the theoretical basis of this technique and its retention mechanism. The author introduces to the reader all the issues connected with stationary phases, ionpair reagents, organic modifiers, the pH of the eluent, temperature, and various detection techniques which may be used in IPC. One can also find much practical advice on how to start with IPC and how to improve results by the use of IPC."
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, April 2012