The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now seeing the beginning of commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well-established field are several emerging technologies with innovative mechanisms and functions that utilize the mixed ionic/electronic conducting character of conjugated organic materials. Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices explores the potential of these materials, which can endow electronic devices with unique functionalities.
Fundamental science and applications
With contributions from a community of experts, the book focuses on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. It begins by reviewing the scientific understanding and important scientific discoveries in the electrochemistry of conjugated polymers. It examines the known effects of ion incorporation, including the theory and modulation of electrochemistry in polymer films, and it explores the coupling of electronic and ionic transport in polymer films. The authors also describe applications that use this technology, including polymer electrochromic devices, artificial muscles, light-emitting electrochemical cells, and biosensors, and they discuss the fundamental technological hurdles in these areas.
The changes in materials properties and device characteristics due to ionic conductivity and electrochemical doping in electrically conductive organic materials, as well as the importance of these processes in a number of different and exciting technologies, point to a large untapped potential in the development of new applications and novel device architecture. This volume captures the state of the science in this burgeoning field.
Table of Contents
Electrochemistry of Conjugated Polymers, Yongfang Li and Qibing Pei
Electrochemical Preparation of Conducting Polymers
Electrochemical Properties of Conducting Polymers
From Metal to Semiconductor and Back—Thirty Years of Conjugated Polymer Electrochemistry, Olle Inganäs
Intellectual Transitions in the Study of CP Electrochemistry
Electronic Transport at Different Doping Levels
The Moving Front
Lateral Electrochemistry in Devices
Modeling of the SM Transformation Including Electrochemical Elements
Unification of Electronics and Electrochemistry
Development and Applications of Ion-Functionalized Conjugated Polymers, David P. Stay, Stephen G. Robinson, and Mark C. Lonergan
Ionic Forces and Intermolecular Interactions
Photophysics and Quenching in Undoped Solid Films
Ionic Transport in Undoped IFCPs
Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conduction in Undoped IFCPs
Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Conducting Polymers, Minh-Chau Pham and Benoît Piro
The Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell, Ludvig Edman
The Solid-State LEC
The Elusive Operational Mechanism
The Turn-On Time
Toward Efficient and Long-Term Operation
Fixed Junction Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells, Janelle Leger and Amanda Norell Bader
Motivations for Creating a Fixed Junction LEC
Demonstrated Methods for Creating Fixed Junction LECs
Electrochromic Displays, Magnus Berggren
Electrochromic Device Configurations
Electrochromic Colors and Contrasts
Display systems — Electrochromic TFT Displays
Manufacturing of EC Displays
Conjugated Polymers as Actuators for Medical Devices and Microsystems, Edwin W. H. Jager
Actuation in Conjugated Polymers
Materials and Fabrication
Activation and Control
Organic Electrochemical Transistors for Sensor Applications, Sang Yoon Yang, Fabio Cicoira, Nayoung Shim, and George G. Malliaras
Mechanism of OECT Operation
Integration of OECTs with Microfluidic Channels
Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors, Xavier Crispin, Lars Herlogsson, Oscar Larsson, Elias Said, and Magnus Berggren
Polyelectrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors
Potential for Printed Electronics
Janelle Leger is an Assistant Professor at Western Washington University in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, the Department of Chemistry, and the Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Center. Her research group explores organic and hybrid electronic and optoelectronic devices as well as structures for subwavelength optics.
Magnus Berggren is the Önnesjö professor at Linköping University, Sweden, and guides the research activity of the organic electronics group. This group explores electronic and optoelectronic functions of organic materials for paper electronics and bioelectronics applications.
Sue A. Carter is a Professor of Physics at University of California, Santa Cruz. Over the last 15 years, her research has focused on the electronic, magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of inorganic, organic, and biological materials. Currently, she is studying the application of nanostructured materials to next generation energy technologies, including solid-state lighting, solar cells, and electrochemical cells.