This comprehensive edited volume conceptually develops the notion of ‘de-Europeanisation’ as an important development in the literature on Europeanisation, and applies it specifically to the case of Turkey. ‘De-Europeanisation’ is defined as the loss or weakening of the EU/Europe as a normative/political context and as a reference point in domestic settings and national public debates of both candidate and member countries. ‘De-Europeanisation’ manifests itself in two basic ways: as the weakening of the appeal and influential capacity of European institutions, policies, norms and values, leading to a retreat of EU/ Europe as a normative/political context for society and politics in a candidate/member state; and as growing scepticism and indifference in a given society towards the EU/Europe, risking the legitimacy of the EU/Europe as a reference point in cases even where reform is incurred. Using this concept, the authors analyse the diminishing impact of the EU in Turkish governance and politics after the opening of accession negotiations in October 2005. The relevance of ‘de-Europeanisation’ is investigated through ten chapters focusing on key policy areas including education, migration, democracy, the rule of law and media freedoms, and a number of key actors including civil society organisations, political parties and political leaders.
This book was originally published as a special issue of South European Society and Politics.
Introduction: Encounters with Europe in an Era of Domestic and International Turmoil: Is Turkey a De-Europeanising Candidate Country? Senem Aydın-Düzgit and Alper Kaliber
1. From AKP’s ‘Conservative Democracy’ to ‘Advanced Democracy’: Shifts and Challenges in the Debate on ‘Europe’ Başak Alpan
2. Shifting Logics: The Discourses of Turkish Political Elites on EU Accession Canan Balkır and Sedef Eylemer
3. De-Europeanisation through Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of AKP’s Election Speeches Senem Aydın-Düzgit
4. De-Europeanisation of Civil Society and Public Debates in Turkey: The Kurdish Question Revisited Alper Kaliber
5. Europeanisation and De-Europeanisation Dynamics in Turkey: The Case of Environmental Organisations Büke Boşnak
6. Policy Transfer and Discursive De-Europeanisation: Higher Education from Bologna to Turkey Özge Onursal-Beşgül
7. Why the EU Still Matters in Turkish Domestic Politics: Insights from Recent Reforms in Migration Policy Alexander Bürgin
8. De-Europeanisation or Counter-Conduct? Turkey’s Democratisation and the EU Münevver Cebeci
9. De-Europeanisation in Turkey: The Case of the Rule of Law Beken Saatçioğlu
10. Europeanisation or De-Europeanisation? Media Freedom in Turkey (1999–2015) Gözde Yılmaz