1st Edition

Isotope Effects In Chemistry and Biology

Edited By Amnon Kohen, Hans-Heinrich Limbach Copyright 2006
    1090 Pages 359 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The field of isotope effects has expanded exponentially in the last decade, and researchers are finding isotopes increasingly useful in their studies. Bringing literature on the subject up to date, Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology covers current principles, methods, and a broad range of applications of isotope effects in the physical, biological, and environmental sciences.

    The authors first explain how kinetic, equilibrium, and anharmonic isotope effects are used to measure the ratio of reaction rates, the ratio between isotopes in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the geometric changes between molecules. The volume describes basic theories, including gas phase, simple condensed phase, small molecule studies, and applications of the Bigeleisen-Mayer theory before covering how isotopes affect molecular geometries, chemical bond breaking, formation and chemical dynamics, and hydrogen transfer. It explores novel, mass-independent isotope effects and problems encountered in hydrogen transfer, tunneling, and exchange. Authors also discuss isotope effects in organic and organometallic reactions and complex enzyme reactions and a unique chapter explores water isotope effects under pressure.

    Written by internationally recognized researchers from 13 countries, some chapters summarize the perspective of a well-established subject while others review recent findings and on-going research that occasionally present controversial viewpoints using clear scientific arguments and discussion presented by all relevant authors. Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology brings together a wide scope of different perspectives and practical developments and applications into a comprehensive reference of isotope effects that reflect the most current state of the art.

    Theoretical Basis of Isotope Effects from an Autobiographical Perspective; J. Bigeleisen
    Enrichment of Isotopes; T. Ishida and Y. Fujii
    Comments on Selected Topics in Isotope Theoretical Chemistry; M. Wolfsberg
    Condensed Matter Isotope Effects; W.A. Van Hook
    Anharmonicities, Isotopes, and IR and NMR Properties of Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes; J.E. Del Bene
    Isotope Effects on Hydrogen-Bond Symmetrization in Ice and Strong Acids at High Pressure; K. Aoki
    Hydrogen Bond Isotope Effects Studied by NMR; H-H. Limbach, G.S. Denisov and N.S. Golubev
    Isotope Effects and Symmetry of Hydrogen Bonds in Solution: Single- and Double-Well Potential; J.S. Lau and C.L. Perrin
    NMR Studies of Isotope Effects of Compounds with Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds; P.E. Hansen
    Vibrational Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonds; Z. Mielke and L. Sobczyk
    Isotope Selective Infrared Spectroscopy and Intramolecular Dynamics; M. Hippler and M. Quack
    Nonmass-Dependent Isotope Effects; R.E. Weston, Jr.
    Isotope Effects in the Atmosphere; E. Roth, R. Létolle, C. M. Stevens, and F. Robert
    Isotope Effects for Exotic Nuclei; O. Matsson
    Muonium - An Ultra-Light Isotope of Hydrogen; E. Roduner
    The Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Photo-Dissociation Reaction of Excited-State Acids in Aqueous Solutions; E. Pines
    The Role of an Internal-Return Mechanism on Measured Isotope Effects; H.F. Koch
    Vibrationally Enhanced Tunneling and Kinetic Isotope Effects in Enzymatic Reactions; S.D. Schwartz
    Kinetic Isotope Effects for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions; S. Hammes-Schiffer
    Kinetic Isotope Effects in Multiple Proton Transfer; Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos
    Interpretation of Primary Kinetic Isotope Effects for Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Proton-Transfer Reactions in a Polar Environment; P.M. Kiefer and J.T. Hynes
    Variational Transition-State Theory and Multidimensional Tunneling for Simple and Complex Reactions in the Gas Phase, Solids, Liquids, and Enzymes; D.G. Truhlar
    Computer Simulations of Isotope Effects in Enzyme Catalysis; A. Warshel, Mats H. M. Olsson, and J. Villà-Freixa
    Chapter 24 Oxygen-18 Isotope Effects as a Probe of Enzymatic Activation of Molecular Oxygen; Justine P. Roth and Judith P. Klinman
    Chapter 25 Solution and Computational Studies of Kinetic Isotope Effects in Flavoprotein and Quinoprotein Catalyzed Substrate Oxidations as Probes of Enzymic Hydrogen Tunneling and Mechanism; J. Basran, L. Masgrau, M.J. Sutcliffe, and N.S. Scrutton
    Proton Transfer and Proton Conductivity in Condensed Matter Environment; A.M. Kuznetsov and J. Ulstrup
    Mechanisms of CH-Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Enzymes; W. Siebrand and Z. Smedarchina
    Kinetic Isotope Effects as Probes for Hydrogen Tunneling in Enzyme Catalysis; A. Kohen
    Hydrogen Bonds, Transition-State Stabilization, and Enzyme Catalysis; R.L. Schowen
    Substrate and pH Dependence of Isotope Effects in Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions; W.E. Karsten and P.F. Cook
    Catalysis by Alcohol Dehydrogenases; B.V. Plapp
    Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Isotope Effects; D.B. Northrop
    Solvent Hydrogen Isotope Effects in Catalysis by Carbonic Anhydrase: Proton Transfer through Intervening Water Molecules; D.N. Silverman and I. Elder
    Isotope Effects from Partitioning of Intermediates in Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydroxylation Reactions; Paul F. Fitzpatrick
    Chlorine Kinetic Isotope Effects on Biological Systems; P. Paneth
    Nucleophile Isotope Effects; V.E. Anderson, A.G. Cassano, and M.E. Harris
    Enzyme Mechanisms from Isotope Effects; W. W. Cleland
    Catalysis and Regulation in the Soluble Methane Monooxygenase System: Applications of Isotopes and Isotope Effects; J.D. Lipscomb
    Secondary Isotope Effects; A.C. Hengge
    Isotope Effects in the Characterization of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds; P.A. Frey
    Theory and Practice of Solvent Isotope Effects; D.M. Quinn
    Enzymatic Binding Isotope Effects and the Interaction of Glucose with Hexokinase; B.E. Lewis and V.L. Schramm


    Hans-Heinrich Limbach, Amnon Kohen

    "Kohen and Limbach have produced a massive text that broadly covers the subject of isotope effects in 42 chapters written by experts in the field. Collectively, the chapters demonstrate the very close connection between experiment and theory that is the hallmark of research on isotope effects. …All of the chapters begin with a helpful table of contents, and most have introductory sections that provide excellent background for the subsequent advanced material."
    -W. Phillip Huskey, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006

    "Written by internationally recognized researchers from 13 countries, this volume (42 chapters) brings together a wide scope of different perspectives and practical developments and applications into a comprehensive reference of isotope effects that reflect the most current state-of-the-art."

    – In Anticancer Research, September/ October 2007, Vol. 27, No. 5A