Extensive news coverage of humanitarian crises, especially on television, has led to a strong public awareness of the importance of humanitarian activities. This innovative book examines the evolution of Japan’s response to humanitarian crises, placing it in the context of global debates on humanitarianism. Tracing developments from the Meiji period through to the present day, the book explores the broader cultural and historical framework within which Japanese humanitarian ideas and attitudes to human rights have developed.
Taking a multi-disciplinary approach the book analyzes Japan’s humanitarian ideas, values and social practices, exploring the changing perceptions and attitudes to overseas assistance. Based on primary research including interview material it provides a deeper understanding of the upsurge in Japanese involvement in humanitarian crises, particularly during the 1980s and 1990s. It includes a variety of case studies with a detailed consideration of Japan’s assistance in East Timor. Nishikawa analyzes the case from historical, geographical and political perspectives, illustrating the strategic and political considerations that have influenced the shape of Japan’s humanitarian activities.
Introduction 1. Discourse of Humanitarianism in Major Theories 1.2 The Concept of Humanitarianism and Humanitarian Action 1.3 Theories and Analysis of Ethics and Humanitarianism 1.3.1 Social Construction and Ethics 1.3.2 Ethical Systems: Moral Philosophy 1.4 New Humanitarianism in the World 1.4.1 Protection of Human Rights and Contemporary Humanitarianism 1.4.2 Globalisation and Humanitarianism 1.5 Politics in Humanitarian Action 1.5.1 Morality in Foreign Policy 1.6 Conclusion: Theoretical and Conceptual Bases of Humanitarianism 2. Genesis of Japanese Humanitarianism: Ethics in Japanese Society 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Genesis of Japanese Ethics 2.2.1 Foundation of Japanese Ethics 2.2.2 The Idea of Universality 2.3 Japanese Ethical System 2.3.1 The Source of Values 2.3.2 Humanitarian Values in the Modern Period 2.3.3 Japanese Humanitarianism in Practice during the Modern Period 2.4 Contemporary Japanese Ethical Systems 2.4.1 The Post-War Social Structure and Ethical System 2.4.2 The Idea of Human Rights 2.5 Conclusion 3. Japanese Humanitarian Assistance Since the End of World War II 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Social Construction and Assistance in Post-War Japan 3.2.1 Japanese Assistance in the 1950s to 1970s 3.2.2 Social Contexts since the 1980s 3.2.3 Japanese Assistance since the 1980s 3.3 The Cambodia Crisis 3.3.1 Background: Japan and the Cambodia Crisis 3.3.2 Japanese Humanitarian Assistance in the Crisis 3.3.3 The Impact of the Cambodia Crisis on Japanese Humanitarianism 3.4 The Nature of Humanitarianism 3.4.1 The Nature of Humanitarian Values in Post-War Social Contexts 3.4.2 The Nature of Humanitarian Values in World Globalization 3.5 Conclusion 4. Japanese Humanitarian Ideas and Practice: A Study Through the East Timor Case 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Humanitarian Crisis in East Timor: Background 4.2.1 History of East Timor 4.2.2 Japan and East Timor 4.3 An Overall Picture of Japanese Assistance to East Timor 4.3.1 Governmental Assistance 4.3.2 Non-Governmental Assistance 4.4 Japanese Humanitarianism: The East Timor Case 4.4.1 Japanese Humanitarian Ideas: An Empirical Study 4.4.2 Japanese Assistance in Practice 4.4.3 Findings from the Empirical Study: The Nature of Japanese Humanitarianism 4.5 Politics for Action in the East Timor Case 4.5.1 International Humanitarianism and Humanitarianism in Japan 4.5.2 The Political Dimension of Humanitarian Action in the East Timor Case 4.6 Conclusion 5. The Political Dimension of Japanese Humanitarianism 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Japanese Diplomacy and Politics 5.2.1 Japanese Diplomacy: From Reactive to Proactive? 5.2.2 Domestic Politics: Politician and Bureaucracy 5.2.3 Mobilizing Elements in Japanese Diplomacy 5.3 Politics in the Official Development Assistance 5.3.1 Defining Elements of Japanese ODA from the 1950s to the 1970s 5.3.2 Political Dimension of ODA in the 1980s and 1990s