1st Edition

Jetties and Wharfs

By CROW Copyright 2021

    For centuries, jetties and wharfs have been designed and built around the world and play an important role in contemporary ports. The difference in the use of jetties, piers and wharfs is that jetties are frequently used for the transhipment and storage of light materials and ro-ro traffic, while piers are generally used for heavy loads like iron ore. That is why piers are mostly designed and constructed like quay walls (which are beyond the scope of this handbook).
    The designs were originally based on trial and error and the insights of those who dared to conquer local conditions, such as wind, waves, currents and soil composition. Design and construction techniques have since evolved into the designs we see on the coast or in river ports and seaports nowadays.
    The purpose of this handbook is to provide insight and guidelines regarding aspects that are important in the design of jetties and wharfs. Jetty-specific issues such as loads, interfaces between materials, installations on jetties and wharfs, as well as detailing aspects, are also covered. This handbook is part of a series of Dutch port infrastructure design recommendations that include the Quay Walls handbook and Flexible Dolphins handbook.

    1 Introduction
    2 Jetty types and elements
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Jetty types and geometrical layout
    2.3 Types according to use
    2.4 Jetty elements
    3 Programme of requirements
    3.1 Requirements for design and construction
    3.2 Functional requirements
    3.3 Technical requirements
    3.4 References
    4 investigations
    4.1 Importance of investigation
    4.2 Survey and monitoring plan
    4.3 Topographical and hydrographic investigations
    4.4 Hydraulic investigations: water levels
    4.5 Hydraulic investigations: waves
    4.6 Hydraulic investigation: other wave phenomena
    4.7 Hydraulic investigations: points of special interest
    4.8 Hydraulic investigation: currents
    4.9 Investigation into ice loads
    4.10 Investigation into meteorological conditions
    4.11 Investigations into morphological conditions
    4.12 Investigation into nautical boundary conditions
    4.13 Investigation into seismic hazards
    4.14 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: soil investigation plan
    4.15 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: desktop study, geological maps and groundwater maps
    4.16 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: site visits, geophysical investigations and site investigations
    4.17 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigations: laboratory tests
    4.18 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: determination of parameters
    4.19 Geotechnical and geohydrological investigation: presentation of the results
    4.20 Environmental investigation
    4.21 References
    5 Loads and displacements
    5.1 Loads from rolling equipment
    5.2 Loads from topside equipment
    5.3 Surface loads
    5.4 Environmental loads
    5.5 Berthing and mooring loads
    5.6 Construction loads
    5.7 Displacements
    5.8 References
    6 Design of jetties and wharfs
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Design process
    6.3 Design philosophy
    6.4 Design input
    6.5 Structural design guidance
    6.6 Analysis methods
    6.7 Seismic aspects
    7 Materials
    7.1 Steel
    7.2 Concrete
    7.3 Wood
    7.4 Other materials
    7.5 References
    8 Construction, maintenance and repair
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Foundation
    8.3 Superstructures
    8.4 Asset management for jetties
    8.5 Safety during construction
    9 Legislation and sustainability
    9.1 Legislation and regulations
    9.2 Competent authority
    9.3 Procedures
    9.4 Recommendations
    9.5 Sustainability
    10 Lessons learned
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Safety
    10.3 Design phase
    10.4 Constructability and construction phase
    10.5 Service and maintenance
    Appendix 1 Risk-based reliability differentiation
    A1.1 Introduction
    A1.2 Background to reliability differentiation
    A1.3 Criteria for classification of port infrastructure in accordance with NEN-EN 1990
    A1.4 Guidance for classification


    CROW devises smart, practical solutions for issues pertaining to infrastructure, public space, traffic and transport in the Netherlands in conjunction with external professionals who share knowledge with one another and make it utilizable in practice. CROW is an independent, non-profit research organization investing in knowledge for now and the future. Striving towards the best solutions for issues ranging from policy to managing infrastructure, public space, traffic and transport, and work and safety. Furthermore, CROW is expert in outsourcing and contracting.