Juvenile justice has been and remains a topical issue at national and international levels. There are various standards and guidelines for administration, but six major models characterize juvenile justice systems worldwide: participatory, welfare, corporatism, modified justice, justice, and crime control. Juvenile Justice: International Perspectives, Models, and Trends presents contributions by authors from different countries in all five continents employing these six models.
The book begins with a comprehensive overview of the topic and the various international standards and guidelines designed to inform juvenile justice practices. This introduction is followed by chapters on individual countries covered independently by resident experts, allowing readers to appreciate a range of comparisons and to critically reflect on the relative merits of the different models. Topics presented in each chapter include:
- The country’s history of juvenile justice
- The nature and status of delinquency
- Current legislation on juvenile justice
- How well the legislation complies with the Standard Minimum Rules of the Administration of Juvenile Justice as defined by the United Nations
- The type of juvenile justice model followed
- Age limits for male and female juvenile offenders
- Legal and social issues confronting juvenile offenders
- Current theoretical biases used to explain and justify response to delinquency
- Future issues, challenges, and/or initiatives
Text boxes supply current and relevant examples to contextualize key issues and themes. Each chapter features discussion questions and helpful web links to facilitate further research. Presented in an unbiased manner, the book is a consolidated yet comprehensive overview of juvenile justice models and practices worldwide. It enables readers to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of different juvenile justice models/systems and to evaluate all countries in light of the larger international phenomena of delinquency.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Juvenile Justice in the International Arena; John A. Winterdyk*
Of Justice and Juveniles in Austria: Achievements and Challenges; Karin Bruckmüller and Stefan Schumann
Youth Justice and Youth Crime in Australia; Michael O’Connell and Elizabeth O’Connell
Administration of Juvenile Justice in Brazil: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges; Aline Yamamoto, Juliana Cardoso Benedetti, Karyna Batista Sposato, Marisa Meneses de Andrade, and Natália Lago
Juvenile Justice and Young Offenders: A Canadian Overview; John A. Winterdyk and Anne Miller
China’s Juvenile Justice: A System in Transition; Ruohui Zhao, Hongwei Zhang, and Jianhong Liu
The Iranian Juvenile Criminal Justice System: An Overview; Tahmoores Bashiriyeh and Mohamma d Ali Rajab
Juvenile Justice and Juvenile Crime: An Overview of Japan; Yokoyama Minoru
Child Justice in Namibia: Back to Square One? Stefan Schulz
Juvenile Justice and Juvenile Crime in the Netherlands; Henk B. Ferwerda
The Scottish Juvenile Justice System: Policy and Practice; Lesley McAra and Susan McVie
Juvenile Justice in Slovakia; Dagmar Kusa and Anne M. Nurse
South Africa’s New Child Justice System; Ann Skelton and R. Morgan Courtenay
Juvenile Justice: England and Wales; Loraine Gelsthorpe and Vicky Kemp
Juvenile Justice in the United States; Peter J. Benekos and Alida V. Merlo
*John Winterdyk would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of one of his former students, Matthew Dunnette, in helping to track down various sources, facts, and details for this chapter.
John Winterdyk has authored/edited over 25 textbooks, many of which have been international and/or comparative in nature. He has also published a wide range of articles in a number of international journals and been invited to guest edited several others on such topics as human trafficking and genocide. He is a member of a number of international associations and has held various visiting and adjunct positions internationally. In addition to juvenile justice, John’s current research interests include human trafficking, identity theft, crime prevention, and justice reform.