Key Readings in Criminology provides a comprehensive single-volume collection of readings in criminology. It provides students with convenient access to a broad range of excerpts (over 150 readings) from original criminological texts and key articles, and is designed to be used either as a stand-alone text or in conjunction with the same author's textbook, Criminology.
This volume can be used in a number of ways in support of the study of criminology:
- as a source of both ‘key’ and supplementary reading for lectures;
- as the basis for organized reading in advance of seminars and tutorials;
- as the basis for classroom discussion and analysis;
- as a broad source of reading for exam revision;
- in addition it provides students with access to a broad range of materials with which to follow up their reading of their main textbook;
- it includes readings that include more recent summaries of particularly important criminological issues, as well as excerpts from criminological classics;
- it also introduces students not only to criminological argument and debate, but also encourages them to read primary as well as secondary or summary sources.
Table of Contents
1. Understanding Crime and Criminology Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 1.1 What is crime?, Paul Tappan 1.2 Conceptions of deviance, official data and deviants, Steven Box 1.3 The construction and deconstruction of crime, John Muncie 1.4 A suitable amount of crime, Nils Christie 2. Crime and Punishment in History Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 2.1 Execution and the English people, Vic Gatrell 2.2 Eighteenth-century punishment, Michael Ignatieff 2.3 Prosecutors and the courts, Clive Emsley 2.4 Police and people: the birth of Mr Peel's blue locusts, Michael Ignatieff 2.5The London Garotting Panic of 1862: a moral panic and the creation of acriminal class in mid-Victorian England, Jennifer Davis 3. Crime Data and Crime Trends Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 3.1 The social construction of official statistics on criminal deviance, Steven Box 3.2 A note on the use of official statistics, John Kitsuse and Aaron Cicourel 3.3 The origins of the British Crime Survey, Mike Hough, Mike Maxfield, B. Morris and J Simmons 3.4 Unravelling recent crime patterns and trends, Robert Reiner 4. Crime and the Media, Introduction, Key concepts and questions for discussion 4.1What makes crime 'news'?, Jack Katz 4.2 The media politics of crime and criminal justice, Philip Schlesinger, H. Tumber, and G. Murdock 4.3 On the continuing problem of media effects, Sonia Livingstone 4.4 The sociology of moral panics, Stan Cohen 5. Classicism and Positivism Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 5.1 On Crimes and Punishments, Cesare Beccaria 5.2 The female born criminal, Cesare Lombroso 5.3 The positive school of criminology, Enrico Ferri 6. Biological Positivism Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 6.1 Criminal anthropology in the United States, Nicola Rafter 6.2 The increasing appropriation of genetic explanations, Troy Duster 6.3 Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behaviour in children and adults, Adrian Raine 6.4 Evolutionary psychology and crime, Satoshi Kanazawa 7. Psychological Positivism Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 7.1 Differential association, E. Sutherland and D.Cressey 7.2 Social structure and social learning, Ron Akers 7.3 Crime as choice, James Q. Wilson and Richard Herrnstein 7.4 The link between cognitive ability and criminal behaviour, Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray 8. Durkheim, Anomie and Strain Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 8.1 The normal and the pathological, Emile Durkheim 8.2 Social structure and anomie, Robert Merton 8.3 Why do individuals engage in crime?, Robert Agnew 8.4 Crime and the American Dream: an institutional analysis, Richard Rosenfield and Steven Messner 8.5 The Vertigo of Late Modernity, Jock Young 9. The Chicago School: Culture and Subcultures Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 9.1 Juvenile delinquency and urban areas, Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay 9.2 Delinquent Boys: The culture of the gang, Al Cohen 9.3 Subcultural conflict and working-class community, Phil Cohen 9.4 Subcultures, cultures and class, John Clarke, Stuart Hall,Tony Jefferson and B. Roberts 9.5 Cultural criminology, Jeff Ferrell 10. Interactionism and Labelling Theory Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 10.1 Primary and secondary deviation, Edwin Lemert 10.2 Notes on the sociology of deviance, Kai Eriksen 10.3 Outsiders, Howard Becker 10.4 Misunderstanding labelling perspectives, Ken Plummer 10.5 The social reaction against drugtaking, Jock Young 11. Control Theories Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 11.1 Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency, Gresham Sykes and David Matza 11.2 A control theory of delinquency, Travis Hirschi 11.3 A General Theory of Crime, Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi 11.4 Charles Tittle's Control Balance and criminological theory, John Braithwaite 12. Radical and Critical Criminology, Introduction, Key concepts and questions for discussion 12.1 Toward a political economy of crime, William Chambliss 12.2 The theoretical and political priorities of critical criminology, Phil Scraton and Kathryn Chadwick 12.3 Radical criminology in Britain, Jock Young 12.4 Abolitionism and crime control, Willem de Haan 13. Left and Right Realism Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 13.1 Reflections on realism, Roger Matthews and Jock Young 13.2 The failure of criminology: the need for a radical realism, Jock Young 13.3 The Emerging Underclass, Charles Murray 13.4 Broken windows, James Q. Wilson and George Kelling 14. Contemporary Classicism Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 14.1 The new criminologies of everyday life, David Garland 14.2 'Situational' crime prevention: theory and practice, Ron Clarke 14.3 Opportunity makes the thief: practical theory for crime prevention, Marcus Felsen and Ron Clarke 14.4 Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach, Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felsen 15. Feminist Criminology Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 15.1 The etiology of female crime, Dorie Klein 15.2 Girls, crime and woman's place: toward a feminist model of female delinquency, Meda Chesney-Lind 15.3 Feminism and criminology, Kathleen Daly and Meda Chesney-Lind 15.4 Feminist approaches to criminology or postmodern woman meets atavistic man, Carol Smart 16. Late Modernity, Governmentality and Risk Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 16.1 The new penology: notes on the emerging strategy for corrections, Malcolm Feeley and Jonathan Simon 16.2 Actuarialism and the risk society, Jock Young 16.3 Risk, power and crime prevention, Pat O'Malley 16.4 'Say Cheese!' The Disney order that is not so Mickey Mouse, Clifford Shearing and Philip Stenning 17 .Victims, Victimization and Victimology Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 17.1 On Becoming a Victim, Paul Rock 17.2 Fiefs and peasants: accomplishing change for victims in the criminal justice system, Joanna Shapland 17.3 Violence against women and children: the contradictions of crime control under patriarchy, Jill Radford and Betsy Stanko 17.4 Multiple victimization: its extent and significance, Graham Farrell 18. White-collar and Corporate Crime Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 18.1 The problem of white-collar crime, Edwin Sutherland 18.2 Who is the criminal?, Paul Tappan 18.3 Defining white-collar crime, David Friedrichs 18.4 Iraq and Halliburton, Dawn Rothe 19. Organised crime Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 19.1 Organised crime: the structural skeleton, Donald Cressey 19.2 Fishy business: The mafia and the Fulton Fish Market, James Jacobs 19.3 The crime network, William Chambliss 19.4 The Profession of Violence: the Krays, John Pearson 19.5 Perspectives on 'Organised Crime', Mike Levi 20. Violent and Property Crime Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 20.1 The social organization of burglary, Neil Shover 20.2 American lethal violence, Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins 20.3 Modernization, self-control and lethal violence, Manuel Eisner 20.4 Racial harassment and the process of victimization, Ben Bowling 21. Drugs and Alcohol Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 21.1 Booze, the urban night, and the human ecology of violence, Dick Hobbs, Phil Hadfield, Stuart Lister and Simon Winlow 21.2 Heroin use and street crime, James Inciardi 21.3 Drug prohibition in the United States: costs, consequences and alternatives, Ethan Nadelmann 21.4 The war on drugs and the African-American community, Mark Mauer 22. Penology and Punishment Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 22.1 The body of the condemned, Michel Foucault 22.2 What works? Questions and answers about prison reform, Robert Martinson 22.3 Censure and proportionality, Andrew von Hirsch 22.4 The largest penal experiment in American history, Franklin Zimring, Gordon Hawkins and Sam Kamin 23. Understanding Criminal Justice Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 23.1 Two models of the criminal process, Herbert Packer 23.2 Models of justice: Portia or Persephone? Some thoughts on equality, fairness and gender in the field of criminal justice, Frances Heidensohn 23.3 The antecedents of compliant behaviour, Tom Tyler 23.4 Defiance, deterrence and irrelevance: a theory of the criminal sanction, Lawrence Sherman 24. Crime Prevention and Community Safety Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 24.1 A conceptual model of crime prevention, Paul Brantingham and Frederic Faust 24.2 The British Gas suicide story and its criminological implications, Ron Clarke and Pat Mayhew 24.3 Neighbourhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy, Robert Sampson, Stephen Raudenbusch and Felten Earls 24.4 The uses of sidewalks: safety, Jane Jacobs 25. The Police and Policing Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 25.1 What do the police do? David Bayley 25.2 A sketch of the policeman's working personality, Jerome Skolnick 25.3 The rhetoric of community policing, Carl Klockars 25.4 The future of policing, David Bayley and Clifford Shearing 26. Criminal Courts and the Court Process Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 26.1 Conditions of successful degradation ceremonies, Harold Garfinkel 26.2 Materials of control, Pat Carlen 26.3 The adversarial system, Paul Rock 26.4 Understanding law enforcement, Doreen McBarnett 27. Sentencing and Non-Custodial Penalties Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 27.1 Crime, inequality and sentencing, Pat Carlen 27.2 The punitive city: notes on the dispersal of social control, Stan Cohen 27.3 The dispersal of discipline thesis, Anthony Bottoms 27.4 Understanding the growth of the prison population in England and Wales, Andrew Millie, Jessica Jacobson and Mike Hough 28. Prisons and Imprisonment Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 28.1 The 'disciplinary' origins of the prison, David Garland 28.2 Prisons and the contested nature of punishment, Richard Sparks 28.3 The inmate world, Erving Goffman 28.4 Women in prison: the facts, Pat Carlen and Anne Worrall 29. Youth Crime and Youth Justice Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 29.1 Present tense: moderates and hooligans, Geoffrey Pearson 29.2 The coming of the super-predators, John Dilulio 29.3 Penal custody: intolerance, irrationality and indifference, Barry Goldson 29.4 Comparative youth justice, Michael Cavadino and James Dignan 30. Restorative Justice Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 30.1 Conflicts as property, Nils Christie 30.2 Restorative justice: an overview, Tony Marshall 30.3 Responsibilities, rights and restorative justice, Andrew Ashworth 30.4 Critiquing the critics: a brief response to critics of restorative justice, Allison Morris 31. Race, Crime and Justice Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 31.1 The racism of criminalization: police and the reproduction of the criminal other, Tony Jefferson 31.2 From Scarman to Stephen Lawrence, Stuart Hall 31.3 In proportion: race, and police stop and search, P.A.J. Waddington, Kevin Stenson and David Don 31.4 Deadly symbiosis: when ghetto and prison meet and mesh, Loic Wacquant 32. Gender, Crime and Justice Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 32.1 Women and criminal justice: saying it again, again and again, Loraine Gelsthorpe 32.2 The woman of legal discourse, Carol Smart 32.3 Women and social control, Frances Heidensohn 32.4 Common sense, routine precaution and normal violence, Betsy Stanko 32.5 Hegemonic and subordinated masculinities, James Messerschmidt 33. Criminal and Forensic Psychology Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 33.1 Individual factors in offending, David Farrington and Brandon Welsh 33.2 Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy, Terrie Moffitt 33.3 A sociogenic developmental theory of offending, Robert Sampson and John Laub 34. Globalisation, Terrorism and Human Rights Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 34.1 Crime Control as Industry, Nils Christie 34.2 Human rights and crimes of the state: the culture of denial, Stan Cohen 34.3 The new regulatory state and the transformation of criminology, John Braithwaite 34.4 Criminal justice and political cultures, Tim Newburn and Richard Sparks 35. Doing Criminological Research Introduction. Key concepts and questions for discussion 35.1The relationship between theory and empirical observations in criminology, Anthony Bottoms 35.2 The fieldwork approach, Howard Parker 35.3 A snowball's chance in hell: doing fieldwork with active residential burglars, Richard Wright, Scott Decker, Allison Redfern and Dietrich Smith 35.4 Doing research in prison: breaking the silence?, Allison Liebling 35.5 Feminist methodologies in criminology: a new approach or old wine in new bottles?, Loraine Gelsthorpe 35.6 Writing: the problem of getting started, Howard Becker
Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Social Policy at the London School of Economics. He is currently President of the British Society of Criminology. Tim is the author or editor of over 30 books, the most recent of which are The Politics of Crime Control (edited with Paul Rock, Oxford University Press 2006); Policy Transfer and Criminal Justice (with Trevor Jones, Open University Press 2007); and the Handbook of Criminal Investigation (co-edited with Tom Williamson and Alan Wright, Willan Publishing 2007).
'... by far the most comprehensive, contemporary and wide-ranging reader on the market ... I have no doubt that it will prove very successful indeed.' – Dave Edwards, London Metropolitan University
'... it's a terrific collection and nothing nearly as good exists elsewhere.' – Jonathan Simon, University of California Berkeley
'A lot of criminology for little money. It contains so many classics we want our students to read anyway, that it is fair to say it is an excellent buy for anyone studying criminology' – Professor Renvan Swaaningen, Erasmus University, Rotterdam