Knowledge Guided Machine Learning : Accelerating Discovery using Scientific Knowledge and Data book cover
1st Edition

Knowledge Guided Machine Learning
Accelerating Discovery using Scientific Knowledge and Data




ISBN 9780367693411
Published August 15, 2022 by Chapman & Hall
442 Pages 170 Color & 8 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Given their tremendous success in commercial applications, machine learning (ML) models are increasingly being considered as alternatives to science-based models in many disciplines. Yet, these "black-box" ML models have found limited success due to their inability to work well in the presence of limited training data and generalize to unseen scenarios. As a result, there is a growing interest in the scientific community on creating a new generation of methods that integrate scientific knowledge in ML frameworks. This emerging field, called scientific knowledge-guided ML (KGML), seeks a distinct departure from existing "data-only" or "scientific knowledge-only" methods to use knowledge and data at an equal footing. Indeed, KGML involves diverse scientific and ML communities, where researchers and practitioners from various backgrounds and application domains are continually adding richness to the problem formulations and research methods in this emerging field.

Knowledge Guided Machine Learning: Accelerating Discovery using Scientific Knowledge and Data provides an introduction to this rapidly growing field by discussing some of the common themes of research in KGML using illustrative examples, case studies, and reviews from diverse application domains and research communities as book chapters by leading researchers.

KEY FEATURES

  • First-of-its-kind book in an emerging area of research that is gaining widespread attention in the scientific and data science fields
  • Accessible to a broad audience in data science and scientific and engineering fields
  • Provides a coherent organizational structure to the problem formulations and research methods in the emerging field of KGML using illustrative examples from diverse application domains
  • Contains chapters by leading researchers, which illustrate the cutting-edge research trends, opportunities, and challenges in KGML research from multiple perspectives
  • Enables cross-pollination of KGML problem formulations and research methods across disciplines
  • Highlights critical gaps that require further investigation by the broader community of researchers and practitioners to realize the full potential of KGML

 

Table of Contents

About the Editors

List of Contributors

1 Introduction

Anuj Karpatne, Ramakrishnan Kannan, and Vipin Kumar

2 Targeted Use of Deep Learning for Physics and Engineering

Steven L. Brunton and J. Nathan Kutz

3 Combining Theory and Data-Driven Approaches for Epidemic Forecasts

Lijing Wang, Aniruddha Adiga, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis, Adam Sadilek, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, and Madhav Marathe

4 Machine Learning and Projection-Based Model Reduction in Hydrology and Geosciences

Mojtaba Forghani, Yizhou Qian, Jonghyun Lee, Matthew Farthing, Tyler Hesser, Peter K. Kitanidis, and Eric F. Darve

5 Applications of Physics-Informed Scientific Machine Learning in Subsurface Science: A Survey

Alexander Y. Sun, Hongkyu Yoon, Chung-Yan Shih, and Zhi Zhong

6 Adaptive Training Strategies for Physics-Informed Neural Networks

Sifan Wang and Paris Perdikaris

7 Modern Deep Learning for Modeling Physical Systems

Nicholas Geneva and Nicholas Zabaras

8 Physics-Guided Deep Learning for Spatiotemporal Forecasting

Rui Wang, Robin Walters, and Rose Yu

9 Science-Guided Design and Evaluation of Machine Learning Models: A Case-Study on Multi-Phase Flows

Nikhil Muralidhar, Jie Bu, Ze Cao, Long He, Naren Ramakrishnan, Danesh Tafti, and Anuj Karpatne

10 Using the Physics of Electron Beam Interactions to Determine Optimal Sampling and Image Reconstruction Strategies for High Resolution STEM

Nigel D. Browning, B. Layla Mehdi, Daniel Nicholls, and Andrew Stevens

11 FUNNL: Fast Nonlinear Nonnegative Unmixing for Alternate Energy Systems

Jeffrey A. Graves, Thomas F. Blum, Piyush Sao, Miaofang Chi, and Ramakrishnan Kannan

12 Structure Prediction from Scattering Profiles: A Neutron-Scattering Use-Case

Cristina Garcia-Cardona, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Travis Johnston, Thomas Proffen, and Sudip K. Seal

13 Physics-Infused Learning: A DNN and GAN Approach

Zhibo Zhang, Ryan Nguyen, Souma Chowdhury, and Rahul Rai

14 Combining System Modeling and Machine Learning into Hybrid Ecosystem Modeling

Markus Reichstein, Bernhard Ahrens, Basil Kraft, Gustau Camps-Valls, Nuno Carvalhais, Fabian Gans, Pierre Gentine, and Alexander J. Winkler

15 Physics-Guided Neural Networks (PGNN): An Application in Lake Temperature Modeling

Arka Daw, Anuj Karpatne, William D. Watkins, Jordan S. Read, and Vipin Kumar

16 Physics-Guided Recurrent Neural Networks for Predicting Lake Water Temperature

Xiaowei Jia, Jared D. Willard, Anuj Karpatne, Jordan S. Read, Jacob A. Zwart, Michael Steinbach, and Vipin Kumar

17 Physics-Guided Architecture (PGA) of LSTM Models for Uncertainty Quantification in Lake Temperature Modeling

Arka Daw, R. Quinn Thomas, Cayelan C. Carey, Jordan S. Read, Alison P. Appling, and Anuj Karpatne

Index

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Editor(s)

Biography

Anuj Karpatne is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech. His research focuses on pushing on the frontiers of knowledge-guided machine learning by combining scientific knowledge and data in the design and learning of machine learning methods to solve scientific and societally relevant problems.

Ramakrishnan Kannan is the group leader for Discrete Algorithms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. His research expertise is in distributed machine learning and graph algorithms on HPC platforms and their application to scientific data with a specific interest for accelerating scientific discovery.

Vipin Kumar is a Regents Professor at the University of Minnesota’s Computer Science and Engineering Department. His current major research focus is on knowledge-guided machine learning and its applications to understanding the impact of human induced changes on the Earth and its environment.