© 2014 – CRC Press
366 pages | 62 B/W Illus.
Opioids such as morphine, codeine, and oxycodone are extracts or analogs isolated from a single source: the opium poppy. For a long time, it was believed to be nature’s only source of opioids. But it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source of opioid compounds—those derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. This plant, known as Kratom in Thailand or Biak-Biak in Malaysia, has long been used locally as treatment for pain, fever reduction, diarrhea, and even depression.
Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Source presents an introduction to the chemical and biological properties of alkaloids isolated from M. speciosa as well as their synthetic analogs. The book covers various topics including phytochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology. Current research, analgesic effects, and addiction potential are also discussed. As the first extensive text on the basic science and clinical use of Kratom, the book provides readers with a concise yet comprehensive introduction to nature’s "other opioid."
"This is a novel foray into the realm of reviews on non-poppy-derived opioids and their pharmacology and … provides very solid information about the chemistry of the mitragynines…The editor, Robert Raffa, is a widely known expert in the pharmacology of opioid drugs with significant knowledge and respect in the field."
—Kenneth E. McCarson, BChE, PhD, University of Kansas Medical Center for Doody's Review Service
"This book should be an indispensable single-volume information source for anyone working in the fields of opioid chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Some chapters would be of particular interest to … specialists working in addiction treatment and drug regulation. The book would also be an excellent addition to any library collection specialized in natural products or drugs of abuse."
—Journal of Addition Research and Therapy
Why Do Plants Contain Biologically Active Compounds? Oné Pagán
Short Overview of Mitragynines; Robert B. Raffa, Jaclyn R. Beckett, Vivek N. Brahmbhatt, Theresa M. Ebinger, Chrisjon A. Fabian, Justin R. Nixon, Steven T. Orlando, Chintan A. Rana, Ali H. Tejani, and Robert J. Tomazic
Psychopharmacological Indole Alkaloids from Terrestrial Plants; Allan Patrick G. Macabeo
Salvinorin A: Example of a Non-Alkaloidal Bioactive Opioid from a Plant Source; Jordan K. Zjawiony
Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil; Sasha W. Eisenman
Phytochemistry of Mitragyna speciosa; Vedanjali Gogineni, Francisco Leon, Bonnie A. Avery, Christopher McCurdy and Stephen J. Cutler
Chemistry of Mitragynines: A Brief Introduction; Robert B. Raffa
Chemistry of Mitragyna Compounds; Mariko Kitajima and Hiromitsu Takayama
Medicinal Chemistry Based on Mitragynine; Hiromitsu Takayama and Mariko Kitajima
Chemical Structures of Opioids; Robert B. Raffa
The Detection of Mitragynine and Its Analogs; Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri
The ADME of Mitragynine and Analogs; Annette Cronin, Ines A. Ackerman, and Jochen Beyer
Analgesic Effects of Mitragynine and Analogs; Kenjiro Matsumoto and Syunji Horie
Non-Analgesic CNS Effects; Jaclyn R. Beckett, Justin R. Nixon, and Ali H. Tejani
Other Opioid-Associated Endpoints; Steven T. Orlando and Vivek N. Brahmbhatt
The Kratom Experience From Firsthand Reports; Earth Erowid and Fire Erowid
The Toxicology of Indole Alkaloids; Jennifer L. Ingram-Ross
Opioid-Induced Adverse Effects and Toxicity; Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr.
Toxicology of Mitragynine and Analogs; Surash Ramanathan and Sharif M. Mansor
The Use of Animal Models to Measure Tolerance, Dependence, and Abuse Potential; Scott M. Rawls
Kratom: The Epidemiology, Use and Abuse, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status; Zoriah Binti Aziz