1st Edition

Laboratory Urinalysis and Hematology for the Small Animal Practitioner

By Bernard Feldman, Carolyn Sink Copyright 2004
    121 Pages
    by Teton NewMedia

    121 Pages
    by Teton NewMedia

    This guide to routinely performed laboratory procedures is essential for any veterinary practitioner or nurse learning to perform, or already performing, routine urinalysis and hematology laboratory procedures. It includes the basic information of how to collect, preserve, prepare, and examine specimens. The book deals specifically with common findings in urinalysis and hematology and provides a comprehensive set of high quality images for on-the-spot reference. It includes step-by-step procedures for both manual and automated testing of all blood components and detailed guidelines for microscopic analysis of urine sediment including crystals and casts. 


    Section 1 Specimen Collection and Dipstick Analysis
    Introduction 3
    Some Helpful Hints 3
    Specimen Procurement 4
    Collection Methods 4
    Specimen Containers 4
    Specimen Processing 5
    Definition of Urinalysis 5
    Physical Properties 5
    Chemical Properties 7
    Sediment Analysis 8
    Procedure for Performing Chemical Analysis
    Using Dry Reagent Strip Method 8
    Storage of Dry Reagent Strips 9
    Dry Chemistry Methodologies 10
    Protein Test 10
    Ketones Test 11
    Glucose Test 12
    pH Test 13
    Bilirubin Test 14
    Blood Test 15
    Urobilinogen Test 16
    Nitrite Test 17
    Specific Gravity Test 17
    Leukocytes Test 18

    Section 2 Microscopic Analysis
    Centrifugation of Urine Specimen 20
    Procedure for Centrifugation and Performing
    Microscopic Analysis of a Urine Sample 20
    Elements of Urine Sediment 21
    White Blood Cells 22
    Red Blood Cells 23
    Fat Droplets 24
    Epithelial Cells 24
    Casts 27
    Crystals 31
    Other Elements Found in Urine Sediment 38
    Mucus Threads 38
    Spermatozoa 39
    Bacteria 39
    Fungal Hyphae 40
    Parasites 41
    Artifacts 42
    Urinalysis Reference Ranges 44
    Physical Properties 44
    Dry Chemical Analysis 44
    Microscopic Analysis 44

    Section 3 Specimen Collection
    and Testing
    Specimen Procurement 48
    Collection Method 48
    Definition of Complete Blood Count 49
    Procedures for Performing Manual Testing 49
    Hematocrit 49
    Plasma Proteins 53
    Fibrinogen 55
    Peripheral Blood Smear 56

    Section 4 White Blood Cells
    Function and Physical Characteristics 64
    Neutrophils 64
    Lymphocytes 65
    Monocytes 66
    Eosinophils 67
    Basophils 69
    Band Neutrophils 70
    White Blood Cell Descriptive Terms 71
    Neutrophil Maturation Sequence 74

    Section 5 Red Blood Cells
    Function and Physical Characteristics 78
    Laboratory Analysis 79
    Red Blood Cell Indices 80
    Red Blood Cell Terminology 82
    Red Blood Cell Inclusions 90
    Blood Parasites 93
    Cellular Organization of the Peripheral Blood Smear 93
    Red Blood Cell Production 94
    Reticulocytes 96
    Laboratory Findings 96
    Microscopic Identification 96
    Reticulocyte Count-Manual Method 98
    Means of Enumeration 98
    Blood Smear Evaluation Guidelines 99

    Section 6 Platelets
    Platelet Structure and Function 102
    Laboratory Analysis 103
    Specimen Collection 103
    Platelet Count Methods 104
    Appendix: Manufacturers List 107
    Index 109

    Recommended Readings 121