1st Edition

Lake Functioning Internal Phosphorus Loading, Cyanobacteria, and Climate Change

By Gertrud K. Nürnberg Copyright 2025
    328 Pages 68 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book explores the interconnections of internal phosphorus loading, cyanobacteria, and climate change and their role in determining water quality in freshwater.

    It goes on to discuss the sometimes-elusive process of internal phosphorus loading with its chemical and biological roots. Reviewing recent observations on present and future climate change, the book explores its effects on lake functioning. It concludes with the abatement and prevention of cyanobacteria proliferation, including techniques that deal with internal phosphorus loading. Some key topics covered are:

    • In-depth exploration of internal phosphorus loading and its quantification in global lakes with diverse morphometry, hydrology, trophic state, and eutrophication.
    • Determination of climate change effects on physical, chemical, and cyanobacteria-related variables in tables based on more than 100 reviewed journal articles.
    • Evidence for the enhancing influences of climate change on internal phosphorus load and cyanobacteria, and of internal load on cyanobacteria.

    This book will be of interest to limnologist, environmental and engineering professionals, and natural science students. It will also be an interesting read to government agents and lake managers.

    Introduction. Phosphorus transfer and cycle in freshwater systems. Cyanobacteria in freshwater. Climate and climate change effects on freshwater systems. Internal phosphorus load, cyanobacteria, and climate change. Treatment options: abatement and prevention of cyanobacterial proliferation. Reference List.


    Gertrud K. Nürnberg has been an environmental scientist for more than 40 years studying and modelling the geochemistry of lakes and reservoirs. She holds a Ph.D. (1984) from McGill University, Montreal, Canada, on “The availability of phosphorus from anoxic hypolimnia to epilimnetic plankton”, very much the subject of this book.

    As head of Freshwater Research, she has focused on the restoration and modeling of eutrophic lakes and reservoirs. Main interests include the sediment-water interactions in stratified and polymictic lakes, especially phosphorus release from lake bottom sediments, using several methods to quantify internal phosphorus loading. She has developed theoretical and limnological concepts, most importantly the anoxic factor, which describes the temporal and spatial spread of anoxia in lakes. She is active in science as a previous editor and constant reviewer for numerous journals. As she is particularly interested in the improvement of the status quo, she has contributed to lake restoration by publishing on and investigating several techniques to decrease internal phosphorus loading and hence curtail cyanobacterial blooms. Her efforts have been recognised by several awards from the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS.org).