Land Application of Biosolids: Process Design Manual, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Land Application of Biosolids

Process Design Manual, 1st Edition

By Epa

CRC Press

310 pages

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Paperback: 9781566765275
pub: 1997-01-20
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Table of Contents

Introduction

* Overview

* Sewage Sludge Regulations

* Objectives of Manual

* Scope of Manual

Overview of Sewage Sludge Land Application Practices

* Introduction

* Application to Agricultural Lands

* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Agricultural Land Application - Limitations of Agricultural Land Application

* Application to Forest Lands

* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Forest Land Application - Limitations of Forest Land Application

* Application at Reclamation Sites

* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Reclamation Sites - Limitations of Land Application at Reclamation Sites

* Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens

* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens - Limitations of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens

* References

Overview of the Part 503 Regulatory Requirements for Land Application of Sewage Sludge

* General

* Pollutant Limits

* Ceiling Concentration Limits - Pollutant Concentration Limits - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rates (CPLRs) - Annual Pollutant Loading Rates (APLRs) - Why Organic Pollutants Were Not Included in Part 503

* Manual Practices

* Operation Standards for Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction

* Pathogen Reduction Requirements - Vector Attraction Reduction Requirements

* Frequency of Monitoring

* Recordkeeping and Reporting

* Sewage Sludge Quality and the Part 503 Requirements

* Exceptional Quality (EQ) Sewage Sludge - Pollutant Concentration (PC) Sewage Sludge - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate (CPLR) Sewage Sludge - Annual Pollutant Loading Rate (APLR) Sewage Sludge

* References

Characteristics of Sewage Sludge

* Introduction

* Sewage Sludge Quality

* Total Solids Content

* Volatile Solids Content

* pH

* Organic Matter

* Pathogens

* Nutrients

* Nitrogen - Phosphorus, Potassium, and Other Nutrients

* Metals

* Organic Chemicals

* Hazardous Pollutants (If Any)

* Types of Sewage Sludge

* Primary Sewage Sludge - Secondary Sewage Sludge - Tertiary Sewage Sludge - Domestic Septage

* Effects of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes on Sewage Sludge Characteristics

* Effects of Pretreatment and Pollution Prevention Programs on Sewage Sludge Characteristics

* References

Site Evaluation and Selection Process

* General

* Part 503 Requirements

* Protection of Surface Water and Wetlands - Protection of Threatened and Endangered Species - Site Restrictions

* Planning and Selection Process

* Preliminary Planning

* Institutional and Regulatory Framework - Public Participation - Preliminary Land Area Requirements - Sewage Sludge Transport Assessment

* Phase I Site Evaluation and Site Screening

* Existing Information Sources - Land Use and Availability - Physical Characteristics of Potential Sites - Site Screening

* Phase II Site Evaluation: Field Investigation

* Selection of Land Application Practice

* Final Site Selection

* Preliminary Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection

* Site Selection Example

* City Characteristics - Sewage Sludge and Soil Characteristics - Regulations Considered - Public Acceptance - Preliminary Feasibility Assessment - Estimate Land Area Required - Eliminate Unsuitable Areas - Identify Suitable Areas - Phase II Site Survey and Field Investigation - Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection

* References

Phase II Site Evaluation

* General

* Preliminary Field Site Survey

* Site-Specific Field Investigations

* Base Map Preparation - Field Checking of Surface Features and Marking Buffer Zones on the Base Map - Identifying Topographic Limitations - Field Soil Survey - Delineation of Floodplains and Wetlands - Site Hydrogeology

* Soil Sampling and Analysis to Determine Agronomic Rates

* Part 503 Definition of Agronomic Rate - Soil Sampling

* Special Considerations for Reclamation Sites

* Sampling and Analysis of Disturbed Soils

* References

Process Design for Agricultural Land Application Sites

* General

* Regulatory Requirements and Other Considerations

* Nitrogen and Other Nutrients - Soil pH and Requirements for pH Reduction - Special Considerations for Arid Lands

* Application Methods and Scheduling

* Application Methods - Scheduling - Storage

* Determining Sewwage Sludge Application Rates for Agricultural Sites

* Part 503 Agronomic Rate for N and Pollutant Limits for Metals - Crop Selection and Nutrient Requirements - Calculating Residual N, P, and K - Calculation of Annual Application Rates - Calculation of Supplemental N, P, and K Fertilizer - Use of Computer Models to Assist in Determining Agronomic Rates

* Design Example of Sewage Sludge Application Rate Calculations

* Calculation of Agronomic N Rate for Each Field - Calculation of Long-Term Pollutant Loadings and Maximum Sewage Sludge Quantities - Calculation of Agronomic P Rate for Each Field - Calculation of Supplemental K Fertilizer to Meet Crop Nutrient Requirements - Additional Considerations for Land Application Program Planning

* References

Process Design for Forest Land Application Sites

* General

* Regulatory Requirements and Other Considerations

* Pathogens - Nitrogen Dynamics

* Effect of Sewage Sludge Applications on Tree Growth and Wood Properties

* Seedling Survival - Growth Response - Wood Quality

* Effect of Sewage Sludge Application on Forest Ecosystems

* Forest Application Opportunities

* Forest Stand Types - Christmas Tree Plantations

* Equipment for Sewage Sludge Application at Forest Sites

* Transfer Equipment - Application Equipment

* Scheduling

* Determining Sewage Sludge Application Rates for Forest Sites

* General - Nitrogen Uptake and Dynamics in Forests - Calculation Based on Nitrogen for a Given Year - Calculation of Sewage Sludge Application Rates for First and Subsequent Years - Calculation Based on Part 503 Pollutant Limits for Metals

* Design Example of Sewage Sludge Application at Forest Sites

* Sewage Sludge Quantity and Quality Assumptions - Site Selection - Determining the Sewage Sludge Application Rate Based on Nitrogen - Site Capacity Based on Nitrogen

* References

Process Design for Land Application at Reclamation Sites

* General

* Consideration of Post-Sewage Sludge Application Land Use

* Mining Regulations

* Nutrients, Soil pH, and Climate Considerations

* Nutrients - Soil pH and pH Adjustment - Factors Affecting Crop Yields at Reclamation Sites - Special Considerations for Arid Lands

* Vegetation Selection

* General - Seeding and Mulching

* Sewage Sludge Applications Methods

* Transportation - Site Preparation Prior to Sewage Sludge Application - Methods of Application - Storage

* Scheduling

* Determining Sewage Sludge Application Rates at Reclamation Sites

* General Information - Approach for Determining a Single, Large Application of Sewage Sludge at a Reclamation Site - Design Example for a Single, Large Sewage Sludge Application at a Reclamation Site

* References

Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens

* General

* Part 503 Requirements

* Marketing of Sewage Sludge

* Developing Product Demand - Marketing Cost Considerations

* References

Land Application of Domestic Septage

* General

* Definition of Domestic Septage - Domestic Septage versus Industrial/Commercial Septage

* Regulatory Requirements for Land Application of Domestic Septage

* Determining Annual Application Rates for Domestic Septage at Agricultural Land, Forests, or Reclamation Sites - Pathogen Reduction Requirements - Vector Attraction Reduction Requirements - Certification Requirements for Pathogen and Vector Attraction Reduction - Restrictions on Crop Harvesting, Animal Grazing, and Site Access - Recordkeeping and Reporting - Part 503 Required Management Practices - State Requirements for Domestic Septage

* Adjusting the pH of Domestic Septage

* Sampling for pH

* Methods of Application

* Operation and Maintenance at Land Application Sites Using Domestic Septage

* References

Public Participation

* Introduction

* Objectives

* Implementation of a Public Participation Program

* Initial Planning Stage - Site Selection Stage - Site Design Stage - Site Preparation and Operation Stage

* Special Considerations

* Agricultural Sites - Forest Sites - Reclamation Sites

* References

Monitoring and Sampling

* Overview

* Sewage Sludge Monitoring and Sampling

* Sampling Location - Frequency of Monitoring - Sample Collection - Analytical Methods

* Soil Monitoring and Sampling

* Sampling Location and Frequency - Number of Samples - Sample Collection - Analytical Methods

* Surface-Water and Ground-Water Monitoring

* Surface-Water Monitoring

* Ground-Water Monitoring

* Vegetation Monitoring

* Monitoring and Sampling at Reclamation Sites

* General - Disturbed Soil Sampling Procedures - Suggested Monitoring Program

* References

General Design Considerations

* Introduction

* Transportation of Sewage Sludge

* Transport Modes - Vehicle Transport - Pipeline Transport - Other Transport Methods

* Storage of Sewage Sludge

* Storage Requirements - Storage Capacity - Location of Storage - Storage Design

* Land Application Methods

* Overview - Application of Liquid Sewage Sludge - Application of Dewatered Sewage Sludge

* Site Preparation

* General - Protection of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality - Grading - Erosion Control

* Design of Supporting Facilities

* Access Roads - Public Access - Equipment and Personnel Buildings - Lighting and Other Utilities

* References

Management, Operational Considerations, and Record keeping and Reporting

* Sewage Sludge Management Plans

* Part 503 Requirements Affecting Land Application Site Operation

* Nuisance Issues

* Odor - Spillage - Mud - Dust - Noise - Road Maintenance - Selection of Haul Routes

* Safety Concerns

* Training

* Health Concerns

* General - Personnel Health Safeguards

* Recordkeeping and Reporting

* General - Part 503 Recordkeeping Requirements for Preparers of Sewage Sludge - Part 503 Requirements for Appliers of Sewage Sludge - Notification Requirements for Preparers and Appliers of Sewage Sludge - Notice of Interstate Transport - Notification by Appliers - Annual Reports

* References

Cost Estimate Guidance for Land Application Systems

* Introduction

* Information Needed Prior to Using Cost Algorithms - Economic Variables - Total Base Capital Cost Estimates - Total Annual O&M Cost Estimates - Calculating Cost Per Dry Ton

* Agricultural Land Application

* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations

* Application to Forest Lands

* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations

* Land Application at Reclamation Sites

* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations

* Transportation of Sewage Sludge

* Truck Hauling of Liquid Sewage Sludge - Truck Hauling of Dewatered Sewage Sludge - Long-Distance Pipeline Transport of Liquid Sewage Sludge

* Example of Preliminary Cost Estimation for Agricultural Land Application to Cropland

* Process Design and Cost Calculations

* References

* Appendix A Case Studies

* Appendix B Federal Sewage Sludge Contacts

* Appendix C Permit Application Requirements

* Appendix D Conversion Factors

Note: This report was originally published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It is being reprinted by Technomic Publishing Company, Inc. to make its timely more widely available.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply