Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids  book cover
1st Edition

Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids





ISBN 9780367454746
Published December 2, 2019 by CRC Press
216 Pages 10 B/W Illustrations

USD $69.95

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Book Description

Over 50 percent of the 6,900 million dry tons of sewage sludge generated each year in the United States is land applied. The principal controversies surrounding the land application of biosolids involve heavy metals and pathogens. Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids is a comprehensive, scientific text providing a complete review of various aspects of this controversial subject, from an extensive discussion of heavy metals and pathogens to the fate and effects of organic compounds. Consideration is given to crop removal of metals and organics, soil erosion, and leaching, as well as to differing approaches and regulations in Europe and Canada. The result is an authoritative, science-based, and unbiased perspective on the benefits and the potential risks of land application to human health and the environment.

About the Author:

Elliot Epstein, Ph.D. is Chief Environmental Scientist for Tetra Tech, Inc. and an adjunct professor of public health at Boston University School of Public Health. He received his Ph.D. in soil physics from Purdue University and served as a research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service for 16 years. Dr. Epstein has more than 30 years of experience in biosolids composting, and has managed or directed more than 400 composting projects. He has consulted on composting and biosolids management for the USEPA, World Bank, and United Nations.

Table of Contents

Land Application of Biosolids: A Prospective
Introduction
Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids
Systems for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids
History of Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids
Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Production
Conclusion
References

Sewage Sludge and Biosolids' Characteristics
Introduction
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients
Organic Compounds
Acidity (pH)
Plant Nutrients
Biological Properties
Microbiological
Organic Matter
Conclusion
References

Plant Nutrients
Introduction
Nitrogen
Ammonification
Nitrification
Immobilization
Denitrification
Volatilization
Mineralization
Phosphorus
Potassium
Micronutrients
Conclusion
References

Trace Elements: Heavy Metals and Micronutrients
Introduction
Sources of Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients in the Environment
Trace Elements in Biosolids
Trace Elements in Animals, Humans, Soils and Plants
Arsenic (As)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Cadmium (Cd)
Animals and Humans
Soil
Plants
Chromium (Cr)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Copper (Cu)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Lead (Pb)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Mercury (Hg)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Molybdenum (Mo)
Animals and Humans
Soils
Plants
Nickel (Ni)
Animals and Humans
Soil
Plants
Selenium (Se)
Soil
Plants
Zinc (Zn)
Animals and Humans
Soil
Plants
Conclusion
References

The Effect of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids on Uptake of Trace Elements and Reactions in Soil
Introduction
Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals
Reactions and Movement in Soils
Conclusion
References

Organic Chemicals
Introduction
Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds when Biosolids are Land Applied
Photodecomposition
Degradation
Plant Uptake of Organic Compounds
Conclusion
References

Pathogens in Wastewater and Biosolids
Introduction
Pathogens in Wastewater, Sludge and Biosolids
Removal of Pathogens by Wastewater Treatment Processes
Effect of Biosolids Treatment
Aerobic Digestion
Anaerobic digestion
Composting
Heat Drying
Alkaline stabilization
Conclusion
References

Pathogens in Soils and on Plants
Introduction
Pathogens in Soils
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Pathogens on Plants
Conclusion
References

Land Application: Agricultural Crop Responses
Introduction
Agronomic Crops
Research Results Prior to 1970
Research Results 1970 to 2001
Forestry and Reclamation
Forestry
Reclamation
Conclusion
References

Effect of Land Application of Biosolids on Animals and Other Organisms
Introduction
Animals
Domestic
Wildlife
Microbial
Earthworms
Conclusion
References

Regulations
Introduction
Concepts and Approaches to Regulations
United States
Method I. 185
Method II.
Class A Requirements
Process Requirements
Alternative 1. Thermally Treated Sewage Sludge
[(503.32(a)(3)] 1
Alternative 2. Sewage Sludge Treated in a High pH-temperature Process (Alkaline Treatment) [503.329(a) (94)]
Alternative 3. Sewage Sludge Treated in Other Processes [503.32(a)(5)]
Alternative 4. Sewage Sludge Treated in Unknown Processes [503.31(a)(6)].
Alternative 5. Use of Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) [503.32(a)(7)]
Alternative 6. Use of a Process Equivalent to PFRP [503.32(a)(8)]
Class B Requirements
Canada
Europe
Conclusion
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Eliot Epstein is Chief Environmental Scientist for Tetra Tech, Inc. and an adjunct professor of public health at Boston University School of Public Health at the School of Medicine. He received his B.S. degree in Forestry from New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University, an M.S. degree in Agronomy from the University of Massachusetts, and a Ph.D. in soil physics from Purdue University. For 16 years he was a research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and an adjunct professor of soil physics at the University of Maine. His research there concentrated on soil erosion and runoff and soil water relations of plants., In 1972, Dr. Epstein transferred to the USDA ARS research center in Beltsville, Maryland, where he conducted research on the use of biosolids, and where, in 1975, he researched and developed the aerated static pile method (ASP). In 1980, he became president of E&A Environmental Consultants, Inc., a premier company in composting and beneficial use of organic materials. In that capacity, he was the principal-in-charge of numerous projects conducted by the staff located in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Washington State., Dr. Epstein has more than 30 years of experience in biosolids composting, and has managed or directed more than 400 composting projects in the United States, Canada and Europe. He consulted on composting and biosolids management for the US EPA, World Bank and United Nations. In 2001, Dr. Epstein and his staff joined Tetra Tech, Inc., a leading company in water reuse, wastewater and beneficial use of organic residues.