Laser Cooling : Fundamental Properties and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Laser Cooling
Fundamental Properties and Applications

ISBN 9789814745048
Published October 6, 2016 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
478 Pages 36 Color & 150 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

In the recent decades, laser cooling or optical refrigeration—a physical process by which a system loses its thermal energy as a result of interaction with laser light—has garnered a great deal of scientific interest due to the importance of its applications. Optical solid-state coolers are one such application. They are free from liquids as well as moving parts that generate vibrations and introduce noise to sensors and other devices. They are based on reliable laser diode pump systems. Laser cooling can also be used to mitigate heat generation in high-power lasers.

This book compiles and details cutting-edge research in laser cooling done by various scientific teams all over the world that are currently revolutionizing optical refrigerating technology. It includes recent results on laser cooling by redistribution of radiation in dense gas mixtures, three conceptually different approaches to laser cooling of solids such as cooling with anti-Stokes fluorescence, Brillouin cooling, and Raman cooling. It also discusses crystal growth and glass production for laser cooling applications. This book will appeal to anyone involved in laser physics, solid-state physics, low-temperature physics or cryogenics, materials research, development of temperature sensors, or infrared detectors.

Table of Contents

Laser Cooling of Dense Gases by Collisional Redistribution of Radiation

Anne Saβ, Stavros Christopoulos, and Martin Weitz


Redistribution of Radiation

Experimental Setup and Methods

Laser Cooling Experiments on Dense Mixtures

Kennard–Stepanov Experiments


Laser Cooling in Rare Earth–Doped Glasses and Crystals

Galina Nemova


Thermodynamics of Laser Cooling of Solids

Fundamentals of Laser Cooling in Rare Earth–Doped Solids

Optical Cavities

Laser Cooling in Rare Earth–Doped Glasses and Crystals

Temperature Measurements


Progress toward Laser Cooling of Thulium-Doped Fibers

Nai-Hang Kwong, Rolf Binder, Dan Nguyen,

and Arturo Chavez-Pirson


Theoretical Developments

Experimental Developments

Laser Cooling of Solids around 2.07 Microns: A Theoretical Investigation

Guang-Zong Dong and Xin-Lu Zhang


Conventional Laser Cooling of Holmium-Doped Fluoride Crystals

Efficient and Enhanced Holmium Optical Refrigeration via Co-Pumping

Energy Transfer–Enhanced Laser Cooling in Rare Earth–Co-Doped Solids


Optically Cooled Lasers

Steven R. Bowman


Laser Thermal Management

Theory of Low–Quantum Defect Laser Materials

Low–Quantum Defect Laser Experiments



Methods for Laser Cooling of Solids

Stephen C. Rand


Cooling with Anti-Stokes Fluorescence

Brillouin Cooling

Raman Cooling

Deep Laser Cooling of Rare Earth–Doped Crystals by Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage

Andrei Ivanov, Yuriy Rozhdestvensky,and Evgeniy Perlin


Vibronic Model of Laser Cooling of Rare Earth Ions

Laser Cooling of the Yb3+:CaF2 System


Bulk Cooling Efficiency Measurements of Yb-Doped Fluoride Single Crystals and Energy Transfer–Assisted Anti-Stokes Cooling in Co-Doped Fluorides

Azzurra Volpi, Alberto Di Lieto, and Mauro Tonelli


Optical Cooling Model for Rare Earth–Doped Materials

Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Concluding Remarks

Interferometric Measurement of Laser-Induced Temperature Changes

B. Rami Reddy

Historical Development of Temperature Sensors

Rare Earth Luminescence Spectroscopy and Temperature Sensors

Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

Optical Heterodyne Technique

Michelson Interferometer

Fluoride Glasses and Fibers

Mohammed Saad


Bulk Glass

Glass Characterization

Optical Fiber

Crystal Growth of Fluoride Single Crystals for Optical Refrigeration

Azzurra Volpi, Alberto Di Lieto, and Mauro Tonelli


The Czochralski Growth Method

Crystal Growth of Fluorides

The Growth Facility at the NMLA Laboratory of Pisa University

Crystal Growth of Cooling Materials at the NMLA Laboratory: Recent Results

Concluding Remarks

Microscopic Theory of Optical Refrigeration of Semiconductors

Rolf Binder and Nai-Hang Kwong


Theoretical Foundation and the Importance of Excitonic Effects

Effect of Luminescence Propagation and Re-Absorption

Finite Spatial Beam Profiles

Theory of Passivation Layers

Coulomb-Assisted Laser Cooling of Piezoelectric Semiconductors

Iman Hassani Nia and Hooman Mohseni


Piezoelectricity in Semiconductors

Basics of Optomechanical Cooling and Amplification

Coulomb Interaction in Semiconductors and Its Application for Laser Cooling

Effect of the Separated Electron and Hole Wave Functions on the Recombination Rates

Formalism of Coulomb-Assisted Laser Cooling of Semiconductors

Comparison of Coulomb-Assisted Cooling in Piezoelectric Materials with Collisionally Aided Laser Cooling

Concluding Remarks

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Galina Nemova is a research fellow at École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada, since 2004. She received her M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia, in 1987 and 1990, respectively. She served as a staff scientific researcher at the Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia (1990–2000). She was engaged as a research fellow at Laval University, Quebec, Canada (2000–2002) and was an optical engineer/researcher at Bragg Photonics Inc., Montreal, Canada (2002–2004). Dr. Nemova is a senior member of the Optical Society of America. She has edited one book and authored more than 100 papers. Her research interests cover a broad range of topics such as laser cooling of solids, fiber lasers and amplifiers, Raman lasers, nonlinear optics, fiber sensors, planar optical waveguides, fiber Bragg gratings, long period gratings, and surface polaritons.


"This book provides a timely and useful collection of articles on optical refrigeration science that complements the earlier books on this subject. It covers a wide range of topics, including laser cooling in dense gases, radiation-balanced lasers, novel cooling methods, and laser cooling in semiconductors. It should serve as a valuable reference for the scientists and graduate students studying this emerging interdisciplinary field."

—Prof. Mansoor Sheik-Bahae, The University of New Mexico, USA

"This book presents a significant overview of the entire field of laser cooling of bulk matter, with many new results and recent novel directions of investigation. It is written by a large number of well-qualified experts, covering a broad range of ideas, particularly with clear figures and well-organized tables. It would make an excellent reference for spectroscopists, condensed matter physicists, crystallographers, and laser scientists."

—Prof. Carl E. Mungan, United States Naval Academy, USA