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1st Edition

Laser Safety




ISBN 9780750308595
Published December 1, 2003 by CRC Press
474 Pages

 
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Book Description

Covering both underlying theory and practical applications, Laser Safety provides a unique and readily-understandable review of current laser safety. This resource explains in detail the biological effects of laser radiation, particularly on the eye, and the provisions and requirements of the international laser safety standard IEC 60825-1, including a full description of the recently revised system of laser classification. It elucidates the rationale for the often-complex laser emission and exposure limits given in the standard, and provides detailed guidance for using the standard to carry out quantitative laser assessments. The authors also discuss practical issues of risk assessment, safety controls, eye protection, and laser safety management.

This practical and comprehensive handbook will be useful for anyone involved in laser safety, including academic and medical researchers, laser manufacturers, and compliance officers.

Table of Contents

LASERS, LIGHT AND SAFETY
Lasers: stimulating light
Creating light
Quantifying light
The properties of laser radiation
The safety of laser technology
Safety standards

QUANTIFYING LEVELS OF LASER RADIATION
Power and energy
Irradiance and radiant exposure
Angle and intensity
Field of view-angle of acceptance
Radiance
Wavelength issues
Absorption, reflection and scattering
Measurement instruments and detectors
References

LASER RADIATION HAZARDS
Introduction
The human skin
The human eye
The concept of exposure limits (MPE)
Laser-tissue interaction
MPE evaluation and measurement concept
Injury to the skin
Skin MPE values
Injury to the eye
MPE values for the eye-also relevant to AEL values
MPE values in the ultraviolet
Retinal MPE values
MPE values in the far infrared
Multiple wavelength exposures
References

BEAM PROPAGATION AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
Measurement versus calculation
Classification apertures
Beam profiles
Hazard distance
Beam reflections
Optical viewing instruments
Assessment accuracy

ADDITIONAL LASER HAZARDS
Other hazards of laser operation
Additional beam hazards
Non-beam hazards

ASSESSMENT OF LASER RISK
Workplace evaluation
Risk assessment

PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND SAFETY CONTROLS
Introduction to protective control measures
Laser controlled areas
Engineering control measures
Adminsistrative control measures
Personal protection
Eye protection
Working in laser controlled areas
Laser servicing

THE MANAGEMENT OF LASER SAFETY
Health & safety responsibilities
The framework policy
The role of the laser safety officer
Safety training
Human factors

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Reviews

"In Laser Safety Henderson and Schulmeister have written the most up-to-date and detailed book on the subject to become available in many years. It is a comprehensive work, a handbook that provides a complete review of laser safety concepts and applications both for the laser product manufacturer and for the laser user.

From the basic concepts of lasers and optical terminology through laser beam and non-beam hazards, the authors discuss all topics thoroughly. One of the principal strengths of Laser Safety is its chapter on laser radiation hazards. This chapter includes detailed background information for maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) and a discussion of measurement concepts for evaluating potential eye and skin exposure levels. This discussion can be of great help to the laser safety officers (LSO) who wants to understand the origins and rationale for the MPEs. This is followed by a comprehensive chapter on laser product classification emphasizing the international laser safety standard, IEC 60825-1. The authors clearly explain the similarities and differences between the international standard, the United States CDRH regulations, and the ANSI Z136 standards.

Whether involved in industrial, medical, research, or academic environments, LSOs and other laser safety professionals will find this to be a must-have reference."
-Darrell Seeley, President and Certified LSO, Laser Safety Associates, LLC, LIA Today

"The authors have succeeded in producing a comprehensive, thoroughly up-to-date reference book that addresses in depth both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. The explanations are accurate and complete and they have not dodged difficult and contentious issues. For example, I was delighted with their appendix of common misunderstandings.

Laser Safety is comprehensive, up to date, and international in its approach to safety legislation. The authors and IOP deserve great credit for producing the new bible for laser safety professionals and, more importantly, a book that will influence people's approach to the subject for many years to come."
-Dr. M. Green, Prolaser

"This comprehensive handbook explains in detail both the background to laser safety and its practical implementation. The discussions extend from detailed theoretical considerations to practical issues or workplace safety, therefore this book can be used advantageously both by scientists and practitioners."
-CIE News, March 2004. Read the full review [PDF 435k]

"Because the handling of lasers can expose workers and researchers to certain risks, standards of use and safety have been developed by the United States and European governments. In Laser Safety, the authors have expanded on these standards elucidating technical jargon, providing the rationale and science behind some of the regulations. …

The authors have designed a well-organized resource. The table of contents is presented in such a way as to give quick entry to the content. There are numerous illustrations and tables with data. There are equations, as needed, which define physical relationships, but the content is not overly mathematical. There are four appendices which include a glossary, a couple of tables of numerical values, and one on 'common misunderstandings.'

It is apparent that the authors have taken some effort to write in clear, uncomplicated terms. Even to someone not particularly involved with laser research, it is reasonably comprehensible. … This would be a valuable resource for any program in which lasers are handled. This handbook is recommended for academic, medical, and industrial libraries supporting these programs."
-E-STREAMS, Vol. 7, No. 6, June 2004. Read the full review [PDF]

"This new laser safety text is very well written, referenced, and indexed. Among other things, the international perspective, illustration of the approximate nature of geometric optics, excellent material on the emerging issue of high powered LEDs, and interesting appendix on 'common misunderstandings' make this text a valuable addition to any laser safety professional's library. We predict it will become a fundamental LS text, right along Sliney & Wolbarsht!"
-TALSO [Triangle Area Laser Safety Officers]