This book critically explores ways in which our understanding of late medieval liturgy can be enhanced through present-day enactment. It is a direct outcome of a practice-led research project, led by Professor John Harper and undertaken at Bangor University between 2010 and 2013 in partnership with Salisbury Cathedral and St Fagans National History Museum, near Cardiff. The book seeks to address the complex of ritual, devotional, musical, physical and architectural elements that constitute medieval Latin liturgy, whose interaction can be so difficult to recover other than through practice. In contrast with previous studies of reconstructed liturgies, enactment was not the exclusive end-goal of the project; rather it has created a new set of data for interpretation and further enquiry. Though based on a foundation of historical, musicological, textual, architectural and archaeological research, new methods of investigation and interpretation are explored, tested and validated throughout. There is emphasis on practice-led investigation and making; the need for imagination and creativity; and the fact that enactment participants can only be of the present day. Discussion of the processes of preparation, analysis and interpretation of the enactments is complemented by contextual studies, with particular emphasis on the provision of music. A distinctive feature of the work is that it seeks to understand the experiences of different groups within the medieval church - the clergy, their assistants, the singers, and the laity - as they participated in different kinds of rituals in both a large cathedral and a small parish church. Some of the conclusions challenge interpretations of these experiences, which have been current since the Reformation. In addition, some consideration is given to the implications of understanding past liturgy for present-day worship.
‘…a valuable overview of the logistics of medieval worship and of the ways that it mayhave been experienced by participants, both clergy and laity’. Madeleine Gray, University of South Wales, in Archaeologia Cambrensis.
Introduction John Harper
Part 1: Investigating the Experience of Late Medieval Worship in Medieval Church Buildings
1. Investigating the Experience of Late Medieval Worship John Harper
2. Enacting Late Medieval Worship: Locations, Processes and Outcomes John Harper
Part 2: Past Evidence and Present Realisation
3. The Church of St Teilo, Llandeilo Tal-y-bont – A Moving Story Gerallt Nash
4. Clothing the Space: Making and Using the Artefacts and Vestments Sally Harper
5. A New Pre-Reformation Organ for the Church of St Teilo Dominic Gwynn
6. Establishing a Liturgical ‘Text’: Text for Performance, Performance as Text Matthew Cheung Salisbury
7. How Did They Do Liturgy? Preparing Late Medieval Text for Modern Enactment Sally Harper and John Harper
8. Quadring Cows: Resourcing Music in the Pre-Reformation Parish Magnus Williamson
Part 3: Historical Foundations – Three Case Studies
9. The Reform of the Choir of Salisbury Cathedral, c.1450–1549 Roger Bowers
10. The Musical Knowledge and Practice of Expert Tudor Descanters Jane Flynn
11. The Holy Name of Jesus: A Literate Cult? Judith Aveling
Part 4: Medieval Liturgy and Modern Enactment
12. The Nature of Late Medieval Worship: The Mass P. S. Barnwell
13. The Celebrant Reflects: Theological and Spiritual Priorities expressed through Sarum Use Jeremy Davies
14. Enabling the Ritual: Aspects of the Experience of Assisting Clergy, Servers, Singers and Organ-Player John Harper
15. How to do Without Rubrics: Experiments in Reconstructing Medieval Lay Experience P. S. Barnwell
16. Reflections on the Enactments: Voices from the Nave Keith Beasley, Judith Aveling and John Francis Moss
Part 5: Reflecting on Present Experience of Past Rituals
17. Reconciling the Historical and the Contemporary in Liturgical Enactment Nils Holger Petersen
18. The Ritual Enactments: Historical Validity, Measurable Outcomes, Experience and Engagement John Harper
19. Enactment and the Study of Late Medieval Liturgy John Harper
A.1 Summary Narrative of Mass of the Day in Choir
A.2 Summary narrative of simple sung Mass with priest, server and singers
A.3 Plan of Salisbury Cathedral
A.4 Plan of St Teilo’s Church.
Music and Material Culture provides a new platform for methodological innovations in research on the relationship between music and its objects. In a sense, musicology has always dealt with material culture; the study of manuscripts, print sources, instruments and other physical media associated with the production and reception of music is central to its understanding. Recent scholarship within the humanities has increasingly shifted its focus onto the objects themselves and there is now a particular need for musicology to be part of this broader ‘material turn’. A growing reliance on digital and online media as sources for the creation and consumption of music is changing the way we experience music by increasingly divorcing it from tangible matter. This is rejuvenating discussion of our relationship with music’s objects and the importance of such objects both as a means of understanding past cultures and negotiating current needs and social practices. Broadly interdisciplinary in nature, this series seeks to examine critically the materiality of music and its artefacts as an explicit part of culture rather than simply an accepted means of music-making. Proposals are welcomed on the material culture of music from any period and genre, particularly on topics within the fields of cultural theory, source studies, organology, ritual, anthropology, collecting, archiving, media archaeology, new media and aesthetics.