Fifteen eminent social scientists from North America and Eastern Europe met under the auspices of Northwestern University's Comparative Politics Program to discuss the significance and characteristics of changes in political leadership in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union since World War II. The presentations at the conference were edited and re-written following the discussion. They are incorporated into this comprehensive analysis of political leadership in European communist countries since World War II.This volume is divided up into four parts and fourteen different chapters. Part One examines the theoretical questions of leadership in European socialist countries. Part Two provides a factual perspective, including contemporary quantitative data and biographical analysis. Part Three discusses the interaction of the leadership and society. Jan Triska's concluding overview relates specific chapters to the informal discussions at the conference.Some of the notable contributions include 'Historical Development of the Communist Theory of Leadership,' Alfred G. Meyer; 'The Theory of Political Leadership and the Issue of Totalitarianism,' Carl J. Friedrich; 'Marxist Theories of Leadership and Bureaucracy,' Andras Hegedus; 'Trends in Top Political Leadership in USSR,' Frederick C. Barghoorn; 'Representation of Career Types in Soviet Political Leadership,' Frederic Fleron; 'The Soviet Appartchiki,' Michael P. Gehlen. Leadership in East European Communism, 1945-1970 is essential reading for students of comparative politics and the politics of East European socialist countries and the Soviet Union.