1st Edition

Lean Management System LMS:2012 A Framework for Continual Lean Improvement

By William A. Levinson Copyright 2013
    215 Pages 7 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    215 Pages
    by Productivity Press

    The success of a Lean manufacturing program depends far more on organization-wide leverage of Lean manufacturing tools than it does on the tools themselves. To this the organization must add the human relations aspects that earn buy-in and engagement by all members of the workforce, to the extent that workers will react immediately and decisively to the presence of waste.

    The synergy of the human and technological aspects of Lean form what Henry Ford called a universal code for the achievement of world-class results in any enterprise, and which he put into practice to deliver unprecedented bottom line results. This book expands upon and systemizes this universal code into a structure or framework that promotes organizational self-audits and continuous improvement.

    The book's first section offers a foundation of four simple but comprehensive Lean key performance indicators (KPIs): waste of the time of things (as in cycle time), waste of the time of people, waste of energy, and waste of materials. The Toyota Production System's seven wastes are all measurable in terms of these four KPIs, which also cover the key metrics of Eliyahu Goldratt's theory of constraints: throughput, inventory, and operating expense.

    The first section then adds a proactive improvement cycle that sets out to look for trouble by isolating processes for analytical purposes and measuring and then balancing inputs and outputs to force all wastes to become visible. It is in fact technically impossible for any waste of material or energy to hide from what chemical engineers call a material and energy balance. Application of this book's content should therefore satisfy most provisions of the ISO 14001 environmental management system standard and the new ISO 50001 energy management system standard.

    The second section consists of an unofficial (and therefore customizable) standard against which the organization can audit its Lean management system. The unofficial standard is designed to be compatible with ISO 9001:2008 so internal auditors can assess both systems simultaneously. Each provision includes numerous examples of questions that promote audits in a narrative form as opposed to yes/no checklists or Likert scale ratings. The unofficial standard can also be downloaded (without the assessment questions) from the publisher's Web site. The third section elaborates in detail on the second and provides numerous real-world examples of applications.

    The Need for a Lean Management Standard
    The Serpent in the Industrial Garden of Eden
    Lean, Six Sigma, or Both?
    Critical to Quality versus Critical to Lean
    LMS:2012 Development Considerations
    Organization and Implementation of LMS:2012
         LMS:2012 Section I: Foundation of a Comprehensive Lean Management System
         LMS:2012 Section II: Voluntary and Customizable Lean Management System Standard
         LMS:2012 Section III: Supplementary Detail

    Lean Key Performance Indicators
    Waste of the Time of Things
         Waste of the Time of Things: Cycle Time Accounting
         Division of Labor and Variation Reduction
    Waste of the Time of People
         Waste of the Time of People in Service Activities
    Waste of Materials
    Waste of Energy
         Energy Efficiency Gap Analysis: Thought Process
    The Material and Energy Balance
         Steady State Assumption and Control Surface
         Application to Painting and Coating Operations
         Application to Steel and Aluminum Manufacture
         Application to Machining Operations
         Application to Power Generation
         Material and Energy Balance, Summary
    Do Not Use Carbon Emission Metrics
         Is Climate Change a Problem?
         Special Interests and the Climate Agenda
         The Cap-and-Trade Community Doesn’t Walk its Talk
    The Recommended KPIs Identify All Operating Wastes
         Lean KPIs and Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints
         Lean KPIs and the Toyota Production System
         Lean KPIs and Lean Manufacturing Techniques
    Waste of Capital Investment
         Non-Operating Processes and White Elephants
         Waste of Capital Assets in Operating Processes
    Summary: Lean Key Performance Indicators

    Integrated Lean Assessment
    Why IMAIS?
         Isolate versus Supply Chain Perspective
         Time of People versus Time of Things
         Energy versus Time of People and Time of Things
         Materials versus Time of People
    Summary: IMAIS


    Lean Management System Requirements
    Provision 4.1: General Requirements
    Provision 4.2: Lean System Documentation
    Provision 4.2.1: General Documentation Requirements
    Provision 4.2.2: Lean Manual
    Provision 4.2.3: Control and Retention of Documents and Records

    Organizational Responsibility
    Provision 5.1: Organizational Commitment
    Provision 5.2: Customer Focus
    Provision 5.3: Lean Management Policy
    Provision 5.4: Planning for Lean Operation
         Provision 5.4.1: Lean Objectives
         Provision 5.4.2: Lean System Planning
    Provision 5.5: Supply Chain Responsibility
         Provision 5.5.1: Responsibility
         Provision 5.5.2: Management Representative
         Provision 5.5.3: Supply Chain Communication
    Provision 5.6: Lean System Review
         Provision 5.6.1: General Requirements
         Provision 5.6.2: Review Input
         Provision 5.6.3: Review Output

    Lean System Infrastructure and Resources
    Provision 6.1: Resource Availability
    Provision 6.2: Workforce Training and Empowerment
    Provision 6.3: Facilities, Layout, and Supporting Services
    Provision 6.4: Work Environment, Ergonomics, and Motion

    Product or Service Realization
    Provision 7.1: Planning
    Provision 7.2: Customer Lean Operation Requirements
    Provision 7.3: Product, Process, and Service Design for Lean
    Provision 7.4: Purchasing: Lean Supply Chain Practices
    Provision 7.4.1: Deployment of Lean Requirements to Suppliers
    Provision 7.5: Lean Production and Service
    Provision 7.5.1: Lean Process Control
    Provision 7.6: Control of Gages and Instruments
    Provision 7.7: Supply Chain Management
         Provision 7.7.1: Customer–Supplier Relations
         Provision 7.7.2: Transportation

    Measurement and Continuous Improvement
    Provision 8.1: Measurement and Analysis for Continuous Improvement
    Provision 8.2: Monitoring and Audit
         Provision 8.2.1: Satisfaction of Customer Lean Requirements
         Provision 8.2.2: Internal Audit
         Provision 8.2.3: Measurement and Monitoring of Process or Service
    Provision 8.3: Containment of Nonconforming Product or Service
    Provision 8.4: Data Analysis
    Provision 8.5: System, Process, and Service Improvement
         Provision 8.5.1: Continuous Improvement
         Provision 8.5.2: Proactive Action
         Provision 8.5.3: Preventive Action


    Lean Management System: Details
    Process Perspective
    The Need for Documentation
    Lean Manual
    Control and Retention of Documents and Records

    Organizational Responsibility: Details
    The Need for Organizational Commitment
         Management Commitment Loses the Luddites
         Management and Workforce Commitment: Workforce Flexibility
         Management Commitment and Training
    Lean Management Policy
    Supply Chain Responsibility
         State of Self-Control
    Supply Chain Communications
         The Need for Internal and External Porosity
    Lean System Review

    Infrastructure and Resources: Details
    Workforce Training and Empowerment
    Facilities, Layout, and Supporting Services
    Work Environment, Ergonomics, and Motion Efficiency

    Product or Service Realization: Details
    Design and Development for Lean
    Purchasing and Lean Supply Chain Practices
         Purchasing Process
    Lean Production and Service
         Lean Process Control
    Supply Chain Management
    Customer-Supplier Relations

    Measurement and Continuous Improvement: Details
    Measurement and Analysis for Continuous Improvement
    Proactive Action

    Additional Lean Environmental and Energy Practices
    Identification of Material and Energy Wastes
    Reduction of Material and Energy Wastes
         Supercritical Solvents
         Counterflow Rinse Systems in Semiconductor Processing and Metal Plating
         Get a Sail!
         Don’t Ship Air (or Water)
         Innovative Use of Mechanical Energy
         Economy of Scale in Renewable Energy
         Application to Agriculture
         Innovative Thinking in Transportation
         4 Rs: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

    Lean KPIs and CTL Characteristics
    IMAIS Improvement Cycle




    William A. Levinson