Lean Management System LMS:2012: A Framework for Continual Lean Improvement, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Lean Management System LMS:2012

A Framework for Continual Lean Improvement, 1st Edition

By William A. Levinson

Productivity Press

215 pages | 7 B/W Illus.

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The success of a Lean manufacturing program depends far more on organization-wide leverage of Lean manufacturing tools than it does on the tools themselves. To this the organization must add the human relations aspects that earn buy-in and engagement by all members of the workforce, to the extent that workers will react immediately and decisively to the presence of waste.

The synergy of the human and technological aspects of Lean form what Henry Ford called a universal code for the achievement of world-class results in any enterprise, and which he put into practice to deliver unprecedented bottom line results. This book expands upon and systemizes this universal code into a structure or framework that promotes organizational self-audits and continuous improvement.

The book's first section offers a foundation of four simple but comprehensive Lean key performance indicators (KPIs): waste of the time of things (as in cycle time), waste of the time of people, waste of energy, and waste of materials. The Toyota Production System's seven wastes are all measurable in terms of these four KPIs, which also cover the key metrics of Eliyahu Goldratt's theory of constraints: throughput, inventory, and operating expense.

The first section then adds a proactive improvement cycle that sets out to look for trouble by isolating processes for analytical purposes and measuring and then balancing inputs and outputs to force all wastes to become visible. It is in fact technically impossible for any waste of material or energy to hide from what chemical engineers call a material and energy balance. Application of this book's content should therefore satisfy most provisions of the ISO 14001 environmental management system standard and the new ISO 50001 energy management system standard.

The second section consists of an unofficial (and therefore customizable) standard against which the organization can audit its Lean management system. The unofficial standard is designed to be compatible with ISO 9001:2008 so internal auditors can assess both systems simultaneously. Each provision includes numerous examples of questions that promote audits in a narrative form as opposed to yes/no checklists or Likert scale ratings. The unofficial standard can also be downloaded (without the assessment questions) from the publisher's Web site. The third section elaborates in detail on the second and provides numerous real-world examples of applications.

Table of Contents

The Need for a Lean Management Standard

The Serpent in the Industrial Garden of Eden

Lean, Six Sigma, or Both?

Critical to Quality versus Critical to Lean

LMS:2012 Development Considerations

Organization and Implementation of LMS:2012

LMS:2012 Section I: Foundation of a Comprehensive Lean Management System

LMS:2012 Section II: Voluntary and Customizable Lean Management System Standard

LMS:2012 Section III: Supplementary Detail

Lean Key Performance Indicators

Waste of the Time of Things

Waste of the Time of Things: Cycle Time Accounting

Division of Labor and Variation Reduction

Waste of the Time of People

Waste of the Time of People in Service Activities

Waste of Materials

Waste of Energy

Energy Efficiency Gap Analysis: Thought Process

The Material and Energy Balance

Steady State Assumption and Control Surface

Application to Painting and Coating Operations

Application to Steel and Aluminum Manufacture

Application to Machining Operations

Application to Power Generation

Material and Energy Balance, Summary

Do Not Use Carbon Emission Metrics

Is Climate Change a Problem?

Special Interests and the Climate Agenda

The Cap-and-Trade Community Doesn’t Walk its Talk

The Recommended KPIs Identify All Operating Wastes

Lean KPIs and Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints

Lean KPIs and the Toyota Production System

Lean KPIs and Lean Manufacturing Techniques

Waste of Capital Investment

Non-Operating Processes and White Elephants

Waste of Capital Assets in Operating Processes

Summary: Lean Key Performance Indicators

Integrated Lean Assessment



Isolate versus Supply Chain Perspective



Time of People versus Time of Things

Energy versus Time of People and Time of Things

Materials versus Time of People



Summary: IMAIS


Lean Management System Requirements

Provision 4.1: General Requirements

Provision 4.2: Lean System Documentation

Provision 4.2.1: General Documentation Requirements

Provision 4.2.2: Lean Manual

Provision 4.2.3: Control and Retention of Documents and Records

Organizational Responsibility

Provision 5.1: Organizational Commitment

Provision 5.2: Customer Focus

Provision 5.3: Lean Management Policy

Provision 5.4: Planning for Lean Operation

Provision 5.4.1: Lean Objectives

Provision 5.4.2: Lean System Planning

Provision 5.5: Supply Chain Responsibility

Provision 5.5.1: Responsibility

Provision 5.5.2: Management Representative

Provision 5.5.3: Supply Chain Communication

Provision 5.6: Lean System Review

Provision 5.6.1: General Requirements

Provision 5.6.2: Review Input

Provision 5.6.3: Review Output

Lean System Infrastructure and Resources

Provision 6.1: Resource Availability

Provision 6.2: Workforce Training and Empowerment

Provision 6.3: Facilities, Layout, and Supporting Services

Provision 6.4: Work Environment, Ergonomics, and Motion

Product or Service Realization

Provision 7.1: Planning

Provision 7.2: Customer Lean Operation Requirements

Provision 7.3: Product, Process, and Service Design for Lean

Provision 7.4: Purchasing: Lean Supply Chain Practices

Provision 7.4.1: Deployment of Lean Requirements to Suppliers

Provision 7.5: Lean Production and Service

Provision 7.5.1: Lean Process Control

Provision 7.6: Control of Gages and Instruments

Provision 7.7: Supply Chain Management

Provision 7.7.1: Customer–Supplier Relations

Provision 7.7.2: Transportation

Measurement and Continuous Improvement

Provision 8.1: Measurement and Analysis for Continuous Improvement

Provision 8.2: Monitoring and Audit

Provision 8.2.1: Satisfaction of Customer Lean Requirements

Provision 8.2.2: Internal Audit

Provision 8.2.3: Measurement and Monitoring of Process or Service

Provision 8.3: Containment of Nonconforming Product or Service

Provision 8.4: Data Analysis

Provision 8.5: System, Process, and Service Improvement

Provision 8.5.1: Continuous Improvement

Provision 8.5.2: Proactive Action

Provision 8.5.3: Preventive Action


Lean Management System: Details

Process Perspective

The Need for Documentation

Lean Manual

Control and Retention of Documents and Records

Organizational Responsibility: Details

The Need for Organizational Commitment

Management Commitment Loses the Luddites

Management and Workforce Commitment: Workforce Flexibility

Management Commitment and Training

Lean Management Policy

Supply Chain Responsibility

State of Self-Control

Supply Chain Communications

The Need for Internal and External Porosity

Lean System Review

Infrastructure and Resources: Details

Workforce Training and Empowerment

Facilities, Layout, and Supporting Services

Work Environment, Ergonomics, and Motion Efficiency

Product or Service Realization: Details


Design and Development for Lean

Purchasing and Lean Supply Chain Practices

Purchasing Process

Lean Production and Service

Lean Process Control

Supply Chain Management

Customer-Supplier Relations


Measurement and Continuous Improvement: Details

Measurement and Analysis for Continuous Improvement

Proactive Action

Additional Lean Environmental and Energy Practices

Identification of Material and Energy Wastes

Reduction of Material and Energy Wastes

Supercritical Solvents

Counterflow Rinse Systems in Semiconductor Processing and Metal Plating

Get a Sail!

Don’t Ship Air (or Water)

Innovative Use of Mechanical Energy

Economy of Scale in Renewable Energy

Application to Agriculture

Innovative Thinking in Transportation

4 Rs: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle


Lean KPIs and CTL Characteristics

IMAIS Improvement Cycle




About the Author

William A. Levinson is Principal at Levinson Productivity Systems in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, USA.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control