1st Edition

Learning from Arnstein's Ladder From Citizen Participation to Public Engagement

Edited By Mickey Lauria, Carissa Schively Slotterback Copyright 2021
    362 Pages 33 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    362 Pages 33 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning processes in the United States, described a “ladder of citizen participation” that showed participation ranging from low to high. Arnstein depicted the failings of typical participation processes at the time and characterized aspirations toward engagement that have now been elevated to core values in planning practice. But since that time, the political, economic, and social context has evolved greatly, and planners, organizers, and residents have been involved in planning and community development practice in ways previously unforeseen.

    Learning from Arnstein’s Ladder draws on contemporary theory, expertise, empirical analysis, and practical applications in what is now more commonly termed public engagement in planning to examine the enduring impacts of Arnstein’s work and the pervasive challenges that planners face in advancing meaningful public engagement. This book presents research from throughout the world, including Australia, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Portugal, Serbia, and the United States, among others, that utilizes, critiques, revises, and expands upon Arnstein’s aspirational vision. It is essential reading for educators and students of planning.


    Chapter 1. Introduction: Learning from Arnstein’s Ladder: From Citizen Participation to Public Engagement

    Mickey Lauria and Carissa Slotterback

    Section 1. Institutionalizing Public Engagement

    Chapter 2. Building "A Ladder of Citizen Participation": Sherry Arnstein, Citizen Participation, and Model Cities

    John Gaber

    Chapter 3. The Scaling-up of Participatory Budgeting: Insights from Brazil and Portugal

    Roberto Falanga and Igor Ferraz da Fonseca

    Chapter 4. Defining Partnership: Incorporating Equitable Participatory Methodologies in Heritage Disaster Recovery Planning for Socially Vulnerable Groups

    Jamesah Gibson, Marccus Hendricks and Jeremy Wells

    Chapter 5. Community-based Village Planning for the Reconstruction of Post-tsunami and Post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia: Participatory Planning in Practice

    Erwin Fahmi and Handi Chandra-Putra

    Section 2. Public Engagement as Power Sharing

    Chapter 6. Citizen Participation in Transitional Society: The Evolution of Participatory Planning in Serbia

    Ana Peric

    Chapter 7. Informing to Placation: Locating Public Participation in Planning Bangalore on Arnstein's Ladder

    Salila Vanka

    Chapter 8. The Relationship between Citizen Participation and the Just City: Does More Participation Produce More Equitable Outcomes?

    Susan S. Fainstein and Adam Lubinsky

    Chapter 9. Rethinking Arnstein's Ladder: Community Benefits Agreements and the Quest for Greater Public Participation

    Ralph Rosado

    Section 3. Public Engagement as Power Redistribution

    Chapter 10. Learning from Arnstein, Meadows, Boggs, and Lorde: Propositions on Building Collective Power for Climate Justice & Resilience

    Elizabeth Walsh and Barbara Brown Wilson

    Chapter 11. Time, Place and Voice in Public Art

    Salina M. Almanzar and Andrew Zitcer

    Chapter 12. Jumping off the Ladder: Participation and Insurgency in Detroit's Urban Planning

    Allison Blackmond Laskey and Walter Nicholls

    Chapter 13. Participation in Postpolitical Times: Protesting WestConnex in Sydney, Australia

    Graham Haughton and Phil McManus

    Section 4. Public Engagement in Planning Education and Research

    Chapter 14. Participation, Inclusion, and Voice in Neighborhood Planning

    Jane Rongerude

    Chapter 15. A Bridge to Civic Empowerment: A Rooted University Approach to Creating Equitable Community-Academic Partnership and Just Power Relations

    Mirle Rabinowitz-Bussell, Leslie R. Lewis, Kelsey Lindner, Keith Pezzoli, William T. Oswald and Paul Watson

    Chapter 16. Building the Foundation for Arnstein’s Ladder: Community Empowerment through a Participatory Neighborhood Narrative

    Laura Dedenbach, Kathryn Frank, Kristin Larsen and Tyeshia Redden

    Chapter 17. Time for a Rope Ladder? A Youth-Driven Process for Developing a Youth Advisory Council

    Krishna Arunkumar, Drew D. Bowman, Stephanie E. Coen, Mohammad A. El-Bagdady, Christina R. Ergler, Jason A. Gilliland, Ahad Mahmood and Suraj Paul

    Section 5. Building Public Engagement in the 2020s

    Chapter 18. Looking Ahead: Public Engagement in Urban Planning Research, Practice, and Education

    Mickey Lauria and Carissa Slotterback



    Mickey Lauria is a Professor of City and Regional Planning and Director of the transdisciplinary Ph.D. program in Planning, Design, and the Built Environment at Clemson University. He has served as President of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning and has edited the Journal of Planning Education and Research and co-edited Town Planning Review while serving on the editorial boards of four planning research journals. He has published articles on urban schooling, community-based development organizations, urban redevelopment, and the politics of planning in planning, geography, and urban studies journals. His recent research interests include professional planners’ ethical frameworks, neighborhood  conditions and planning issues involving race and class, and conservation easements and affordable housing. He has taught and researched planning issues throughout the United States and in Australia and Europe including Austria, England, France, Italy, and Poland.

    Carissa Schively Slotterback is a Professor and Dean of the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research is focused on stakeholder engagement and decision-making in environmental and land use planning. She has led a number of initiatives focused on interdisciplinary and engaged research and education, including co-founding and directing the Resilient Communities Project, which builds community–university partnerships to advance sustainability. She also previously served as Director of Research Engagement in the University of Minnesota’s Office of the Vice President for Research, where she created and implemented multiple initiatives to advance collaborative and engaged research within the university and with external partners. She is the Vice President/President-Elect of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning and was inducted in 2018 as a Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners.