Lectures in Geochemistry
This book is a brief summary of the course of lectures in Geochemistry for undergraduate and graduate students from other than Geological Departments (chemists, biologists, ecologists and naturalists). It describes the Earth’s structure and some geological processes.
The modern geochemical concepts take proper account of global geological processes and the influence of Cosmos. They are based on the laws and approaches of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The cycles of energy and chemical elements within the Earth are interrelated with the global geochemical cycle.
In addition to the traditional Geochemistry course, this book offers Geochemistry of microorganisms, Geochemistry of dispersed systems, Geochemistry of cryogenesis, and Geochemistry of cryptobiosphere.
Lecture 1: Geochemistry tools. Statistical geochemistry. Equilibrium thermodynamics: phase diagrams. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, thermodynamic principles of evolution. Laws of self-development.
Lecture 2: Cosmochemistry. The formation, composition and structure of the Earth. Energy of the Earth: external and internal sources of energy. Heat flow. Heat transfer to the Earth's surface. The cycle of energy in the Earth
Lecture 3: Geochemistry of elements
Lecture 4: Evolution of the Earth as a planet
Lectures 5 and 6: Geochemistry of processes
Lecture 7: The biosphere: its origin, evolution, sustainability, geochemical functions. Water in the biosphere. The cryptobiosphere. The role of misroorganisms.
Lecture 8: Chemistry of the environment. Pollution of the environment: chemical, radioactive, biological. Environmental monitoring.
Lecture 9: Geochemistry of systems: general provisions, structure, stability, emergence. Earth as a system. Geochemical provinces, climate, technogenic systems.
Lecture 10: A generalized model of the Earth as a self-developing system.