This special issue of the journal Memory celebrates thirty years of research into the levels of processing (LoP) framework. Evaluations are provided by leading researchers, including the original proposers, Craik and Lockhart. In addition new findings are reported and extensions of, as well as alternatives to, LoP are described. Overall the collected papers show that much remains to recommend the processing approach to memory, and fruitful theorizing with empirical consequences are readily derivable from the LoP framework.
F.I.M. Craik, Levels of Processing: Past, Present … and Future? H.L. Roediger, III, D.A. Gallo, L. Geraci, Processing Approaches to Cognition. G. Mandler, Organisation: What Levels of Processing are Levels of. M.J. Watkins, Limits and Province of Levels of Processing: Considerations of a Construct. L. Nyberg, Levels of Processing: A View from Functional Brain Imaging. A. Richardson-Klavehn, J.M. Gardiner, C. Ramponi, Levels of Processing and the Process-dissociation Procedure: Elusiveness of Null Effects on Estimates of Automatic Retrieval. E.M. Reingold, On the Perceptual Specificity of Memory Representations. J.P. Mitchell, C.N. Macrae, J.W. Schooler, A.C. Rowe, A.B. Milne, Directed Remembering: Subliminal Cues Alter Nonconscious Memory Strategies. J.S. Nairne, The Myth of the Encoding-retrieval Match. R.S. Lockhart, Levels of Processing, Transfer-appropriate Processing, and the Concept of Robust Encoding. B.M. Velichkovsky, Heterarchy of Cognition: The Depths and the Highs of a Framework for Memory Research.