As a conceptual framework for the investigation of human memory, the levels-of-processing paradigm had enjoyed immense popularity since its introduction in the early 1970s. It was the impetus behind literally hundreds of experiments and was used as an "explanation" for a wide range of retention phenomena. Consequently, a wealth of data and theory had emerged, and this title assimilates and evaluates this information. Originally published in 1979, the distinguished contributors to the volume – both proponents and opponents of the levels-of-processing framework – present here their latest data and ideas on a viewpoint that has been a tremendous influence in memory research and related areas.
Preface. Part 1: Theoretical and Empirical Developments 1. Larry L. Jacoby and Fergus I. M. Craik Effects of Elaboration of Processing at Encoding and Retrieval: Trace Distinctiveness and Recovery of Initial Context 2. William F. Battig The Flexibility of Human Memory 3. Douglas L. Nelson Remembering Pictures and Words: Appearance, Significance, and Name 4. Robert S. Lockhart Remembering Events: Discussion of Papers by Jacoby and Craik, Battig, and Nelson Part 2: Extensions and Applications 5. Michael W. Eysenck Depth, Elaboration, and Distinctiveness 6. Laird S. Cermak Amnesic Patients’ Level of Processing 7. Harry P. Bahrick Broader Methods and Narrower Theories for Memory Research: Comments on the Papers by Eysenck and Cermak Part 3: Language Processes 8. Charles A. Perfetti Levels of Langauge and Levels of Process 9. Janet L. Lachman and Roy Lachman Comprehension and Cognition: A State of the Art Inquiry 10 . Walter Kintsch Levels of Processing Language Material: Discussion of the Papers by Lachman and Lachman and Perfetti Part 4: Developmental Issues 11. Ann L. Brown Theories of Memory and the Problems of Development: Activity, Growth, and Knowledge 12. Mary J. Naus and Frank G. Halasz Developmental Perspectives on Cognitive Processing and Semantic Memory Structure 13. John William Hagen Development and Models of Memory: Comments of the Papers by Brown and Naus and Halasz Part 5: Perceiving, Acting and Knowing 14. Anne Treisman The Psychological Reality of Levels of Processing 15. J.D. Bransford, J.J. Franks, C.D. Morris, and B.S. Stein Some General Constraints on Learning and Memory Research 16. Alan Baddeley Levels of Processing and Levels of Explanation: Discussion of the Papers by Treisman and Bransford, Franks, Morris and Stein Part 6: Theoretical Alternatives 17. Paul A. Kolers A Pattern-Analyzing Basis of Recognition 18. John R. Anderson and Lynne M. Reder An Elaborative Processing Explanation of Depth Processing 19. Endel Tulving Relation Between Encoding Specificity and Levels of Processing 20. James J. Jenkins Four Points to Remember: A Tetrahedral Model of Memory Experiments 21. Fergus I.M. Craik Levels of Processing: Overview and Closing Comments. Author Index. Subject Index.